Types of hatch covers

The main objective of Hatch covers is to prevent the ingress of water into the cargo hold. As ingress of water can damage the cargo in the hold. Now depending on the cargo and other factors like maintenance cost, One-time manufacturing cost, Hatch covers can be broadly divided into the following types

  • Lifting type
  • Rolling type
  • Folding type
  • Sliding-type
  • Roll stowing type
lifting type hatch cover. image credit marinoph.org
Folding type hatch cover, image credit sms-sme.com

Sliding-type hatch cover, image credit www.blommaertalu.com

Rolling type:

The side rolling types, operated hydraulically, are used on bulk carriers and operate/stow in a transverse direction. The pontoons move on a pair of transverse ramps. look at the image

Boxing of compass

One of the most asked question in the interview is Boxing of the compass. The interviewer will give you a pen and paper and ask you to box a compass from North to East or South to east anything and you must remember this a small mistake can take your job opportunity.

To remember Boxing of the compass, you only have to remember from North to East or whatever is your preference, if you remember that you can easily make for other directions.

How i remember From north to East.

  1. North
  2. North by East (we are coming north from the east side, If we come north from the west side it is NbW).
  3. NNE ( 2 north means, 2 points away from the north)
  4. NE by North (we are coming to NE from the north side)
  5. North East (Easiest to remember it is between North and East)
  6. NE by East (Northeast is closer form East )
  8. EbN (East by North)-( same as point 2 above)
  9. East

To get more interview questions, click on interview questions in the menu.

EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon).

It is a device that alerts SAR (search and rescue services) in case of an emergency at sea. It is mandatory to carry one EPIRB on every ship and two EPIRBS for all INDIAN Registered ships.

An EPIRB transmits signals to the satellite. The signal consists of encrypted codes containing the following information about.

  • Ship’s identification
  • date of the event
  • nature of distress

Types Of EPIRB

    406.025 MHz and 121.5 MHz band
    1.6 GHz band 
  • VHF CH 70
    156.525 MHz band

The EPIRB needs to be activated to emit signals. This could be done by pushing a button on the unit, or it could happen automatically if and when it comes in contact with water.

  • 48 hours of transmitting capacity
  • Normally replaced every 2 to 5 years

It is possible that the EPIRB might get activated by mistake, In case the EPIRB is falsely activated, the nearest coast station or RCC (Rescue Co-Ordination Center) must be informed just after the event.

What sound signal should be made by a pilot vessel engaged on pilotage duty and at anchor?

What sound signal should be made by a pilot vessel engaged on pilotage duty and at anchor?

A pilot vessel at anchor shall at an interval not more than one minute ring the bell rapidly for 5 seconds.

In a vessel, 100m or more in length – bell shall be sounded in the forepart of the vessel and immediately after the ringing of the bell, The gong shall be sounded rapidly for 5 seconds in the after part of the vessel.


Vessel not under command (NUC), still making way through the water.

Vessel not under command (NUC). Not making way through water.
RAM vessel light signal
RAM vessel
A vessel constrained by her draught light signal
Trawling vessel light signal
A fishing vessel other than trawling light signal
tow less than 200m and tug less than 50m
Tow more than 200m and tug less than 50m
Tow less than 200m and tug more than 50m.
tow more than 200m and tug more than 50m.
yellow light is a flashing light(sorry we can’t represent it better) – non-displacement craft.
mine clearance
pilot boat

The Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) System.

Shipping is a global business and needs global monitoring in order to respond to security concerns posed by the ships across the world. LRIT is an international tracking and identification system introduced by the IMO under its SOLAS chapter 5 to ensure a thorough tracking system for ships across the world.

It came to existence on 19th May 2006. Ships which were built on or following 31st December 2008 were required to have this system.

Long Range Identification and Tracking(LRIT) is based on satellite communication. The most important advantage of having this system is that the information required to be shared is restricted only to those parties which are required to have it.