This is another frequently asked question and everyone needs to be prepared for answering this question before you face any Exam.
In the image below you can see the markings on the lifeboat of vessel Ever Greet(One of the largest container vessel.)
Starting from the Top of the life boat we have IMO number, Name of the vessel and also the life boat number as you can see in the image below IMO number is 9832729, Name of vessel is Ever Greet and Lifeboat number is 2.
2. Now lets have a look on side of a life boat
If it is a lifeboat or a rescue boat, In this case it can be used for both the purpose so its written Life / Rescue boat.
Below that we also have the name of Vessel.
Flag of the vessel – In this case PANAMA FLAG. (We have this marking on both sides.)
Maximum capacity – Maximum number of people it can have.
Diamension of the life boat. (Last image of the post shows the dimensions).
Following are the contents – Enclosed space entry.
On the top is the serial number.
Date and time
How long the permit is valid.
Location of work.
A total number of persons entering a space with the name and their sign.
Information about the work for which the entry is made.
The oxygen content of the enclosed space with time.
Time of entry and time of exit.
Is the space being continuously ventilated?
Is the agreed communication system functioning?
Is there constant atmosphere monitoring done?
Is there a man standing by at the entrance (standby).
Is the entrance clear?
Is fire fighting equipment available.?
Have potential Hazards been identified?
Is the bridge and engine room informed?
There are many case when people bypass this checklist and lose life. In fact, I have heard from many of my friends that checklists are being bypassed. Not because the company is putting pressure to do something but people want to show that they did many works this month. This can take your life, So Always follow the checklist even if some top-level officers ask you to skip it.
We need to exchange ballast water on board to maintain the ship’s stability and keep the cargo safe. Proper Ballasting and Deballasting can significantly reduce the rolling and pitching of the vessel.
Where can the Exchange of ballast take place?
Ballast water exchange cannot be carried out anywhere at sea. Following are the requirements.
Conduct ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in the water of at least 200 meters in depth.
When a ship cannot meet the above criteria due to reasons such as short voyage duration or enclosed waters, the exchange is to be conducted as far from the nearest land as possible, but at least 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and in a water depth of at least 200 meters.
The ballast water exchange methods are
Sequential method – In this method of ballast water exchange, The tank is emptied completely or to at least 95% and then refilled with replacement ballast water. Emptying of tanks can be done individually or in pairs. Flow-through method- The flow-through method is a process by which replacement ballast water is pumped into a ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water, allowing water to flow through overflow or other arrangements in order to achieve at least 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water. Pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall be considered to meet the standard. Dilution method- The dilution method is a process by which replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water with simultaneous discharge from the bottom at the same flow rate and maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the ballast exchange operation.
The list starts with one of the most basic things, the knowledge of Bay Row and Tier. If you already know this you can skip this paragraph to save time. Ship lengthwise is divided into bays and you can generally find it written on both sides of the hatch cover. So when you are walking on the main deck you can see the Bay number. The image below shows the Bay number marking onboard.
The image shows Bay 33 and Bay 34. Bay number is also marked on both extreme sides top of hatch covers.
Then we have Rows this is breath wise marking or transverse marking.
The center row is 00. Portside will have even numbers like 02, 04, 06 and so on depending on the width of the vessel, and starboard side will have odd numbers eg. 01, 03, 05.
And now we come to Tier, It is the height where the container is stored. Above the hatch cover, it starts from 72 then 74 then 76, and goes so on. At the bottom of the hold is 00 and just above that will be 02 then 04 and so on.
Example of Tier
The brown container is at Tier 72 and the green one is at Tier 74. in the image below.
In the image below the topmost container is at Tier 78.
With the knowledge of Bay, Row and Tier you can locate any container onboard the vessel.
Knowledge of base lock, Twist-lock and Mid lock.
As the name suggests it locks the base of the container to the hatch cover. Always remember to turn the lever right to open and left to lock the container in the base lock. The image below shows 2 baselock. The socket in which base lock is locked is called Base lock.
They are only used in the case of 20 feet container, Mid locks are not required when loading a 40 feet container. As the name suggests it is in the middle of the hatch cover. The image below shows the mid lock.
Each tier of the container is locked with the other tier of the container with twist locks. If not loaded properly or if the container does not sit properly its because of a twist lock. So while loading the crew keeps a close watch and report if any twist lock problem is noted. The image below shows the use of twist lock.
Container marking consist of fallowing –
There is a 4 letter code first 3 letters represent Owner code and the last letter represents Equipment category.
The serial number consists of 6 digits followed by 1 number check digit.
Below that 4 digit alphanumeric code. (It represents size and type of the container.)
Maximum gross – the Maximum combined weight of container and cargo.
Tare weight – Weight of empty container without any cargo.
Maximum payload – Maximum weight of cargo that can be loaded in a container
Containers also contain CSC certificate image is shown below-
Following are the oral questions that you must know before you go for your mates. Click on the question to get an answer (We are working on the answers). What we provide is a sample answer we cannot claim that our answer will be the best answer.
Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) is a manual that provides guidance about the Stowage and securing of the cargo on board. This manual can be Found mostly in the ship’s office as Chief Officer commonly refers to CSM.
In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (Solas) chapters VI, VIl and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code), cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration.
The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.
Following are the contents of (Cargo Securing Manual) CSM –
Principal sources of danger
2. Securing Devices and Arrangements.
Specification of Fixed Cargo Securing device.
Specification of Portable cargo securing Devices.
Inspection and Maintenance Schemes.
3. Stowage and Securing of cargo.
Handling and Safety instruction.
General principles of cargo securing.
Safe handling of cargo securing devices.
Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units.
Forces acting on typical cargo units.
Calculation of forces in semi and non-standardized lashing arrangement.
MSLs for different securing devices
Simplified method-Rule of thumb.
Ship Specific Example based on Alternative Method -using IMO LASCHONTM16.
Ship Specific Accelerations from IMO LASCHONTM 19
Application of portable securing devices.
4.Supplementary Requirements for general cargo/Container vessel.
The angle of repose, or critical angle of repose, of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or dip relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping.
Or it is the maximum horizontal angle at which granular particles can stack without using any other force or support.
Now, this might come to your mind that what is the maximum and what is the minimum angle of repose possible – So Theoretically speaking the angle will be between 0 and 90 degrees. Now let’s check which material has the largest and the least angle of repose –
Materials like Asphalt, Chalk, Coconut (Shredded), Coffee beans (Fresh), Earth, Gravel(Crushed stone) can have a maximum angle of repose up to 45 degrees. Whereas Looking to the least side we will have Urea, Wheat, Sand they can have as low as 27-30 degrees.