Regulation 17 of MARPOL Annex II makes similar stipulations that all ships of 150 gross tonnage and above carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk carry an approved shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances.
The latter may be combined with a SOPEP, since most of their contents are the same and one combined plan on board is more practical than two separate ones in case of an emergency. To make it clear that the plan is a combined one, it should be referred to as a Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP).
The purpose of the Plan is to provide guidance to the Master and officers on board the Ship with respect to the steps to be taken when an oil or marine pollution incident has occurred or is likely to occur. The appendices contain communication data of all contacts referenced in the Plan, as well as other reference material.
SHIPBOARD MARINE POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLAN – SUMMARY FLOWCHART
All cargo vessels where MARPOL Convention is applicable must have an oil record book in which the officer responsible will record all oil or sludge transfers and discharges within the vessel. This is necessary for authorities to be able to monitor if a vessel’s crew has properly disposed of their oil discharges at sea.
Each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above, ship of 400 gross tons and above other than an oil tanker, and crewed fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations).
An oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above or a non-oil tanker that carries 200 cubic meters or more of oil in bulk, shall also maintain an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/Ballast Operation).
CONTENT OF OIL RECORD BOOK PART 1
The Oil Record Book Part I shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if appropriate, whenever any of the following machinery space operations takes place in the ship:
Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks;
Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks;
Collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge and other oil residues);
Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated in machinery spaces; and
Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil.
In the event of such discharge of oil or oily mixture as is referred to in regulation 4 of this Annex or in the event of accidental or other exceptional discharge of oil not excepted by that regulation, a statement shall be made in the Oil Record Book Part I of the circumstances of, and the reasons for, the discharge.
Each completed operation shall be signed by the officer or officers in charge of the operations concerned and each completed page shall be signed by the master of ship.
OIL RECORD BOOK PART 2
The Oil Record Book Part II shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if appropriate, whenever any of the following cargo/ ballast operations take place in the ship:
Loading of oil cargo;
Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;
Unloading of oil cargo;
Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;
Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing;
Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks;
Discharge of water from slop tanks;
Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations;
Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations; and
Bridge Procedure Guide:- The Bridge Procedures Guide (BPG) is an International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) publication that aims to reflect Best Practice aboard Merchant Ships embracing standards and recommendations promoted by the IMO. This includes the concept of ‘continuous improvement’ as described in the ISM Code and the watchkeeping requirements of STCW Chapter VIII.
The International Maritime Dangerous Goods or IMDG Code was adopted in 1965 as per the SOLAS (Safety for Life at Sea) Convention of 1960 under the IMO.
To regulate the transport by sea of dangerous goods to reasonably prevent injury to persons or damage to ships and their cargoes.
IMDG CODE INSURES
The seafarer should be able to classify dangerous goods and identify the shipping names of dangerous goods.
He/she should know how the particular IMDG cargo should be packed, Marked, labeled, stowed and segregated.
He should understand different types of markings, labels or placards used to address various dangerous goods
Must know safe practice to load/unload the cargo unit carrying the IMDG product
The dangerous goods code is a uniform code. This means that the code is applicable to all cargo-carrying ships around the world.
Class 1 is for explosives. The same classification has six sub-divisions for materials which pose a high explosive risk, low explosive risk. Example RDX, Ammunition.
Class 2 is for gases. compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure.This clause has three sub-categories that talk about gases that are highly inflammable, that are not inflammable and gases that neither inflammable nor toxic
Class 3 is for Flammable liquids and has no sub-divisions.
Class 4.1 Flammable liquids – Zinc dust, Textile waste, Paints
Class 4.2 Substance liable to spontaneous combustion Iron and steel.
Class 4.3 Substance which in contact with water emit flammable gases – Sodium, Potassium, Calcium.
Class 5 .1 is for substances that have the oxidizing substance example – Sodium peroxide.
Class 5.2 Organic peroxides like Peroxyacetic Acid , Decanoyl peroxide.
Class 6.1 is for all kinds of substances that are toxic example tear gas.
Class 6.2 Infectious substance – Biological substances.
Class 7 is specifically for materials that are radioactive – Thorium, Isotopes of cesium.
Class 8 is for materials that are corrosive – Sulphuric acid, Caustic soda.
Class 9 is Miscellaneous Dangerous substances like fertilizers.
INFORMATION FOUND IN IMDG CODE
MARKING, LABELLING, PLACARDING
Packaging should be constructed and closed so as to prevent loss of contents by vibration or by change in temperature, humidity or pressure under normal transport condition.
No residue of dangerous cargo shall stick to the outside of packages, whether new, reused, reconditioned or remanufactured.
Part of the packing that is in direct contact with the dangerous good should not get affected. (weakened, react, Penetrate etc)
Packaging should be successfully tested for Vibration, Drop test as provided in the code.
Cushioning and absorbent material should be inert and suitable to nature of content.
Nature and thickness of the packing should be enough to withstand heat generated due to friction while transporting without any problem.
Dangerous goods should not be packed together with other substance if they react dangerously .
Ullage should be kept sufficient for expansion during transportation.
MARKING, LEBELLING, PLACARDING
Label shows the class number and dangerous properties of the goods in pictorial symbols as illustrated in the code.
They are 100mm by 100mm
Placards are 250mm by 250mm, contains the same information but in a bigger size and are fixed to the cargo transport unit.
The proper shipping name and UN number should be marked.
These marking, lebels & placards shall be readily visible.
Marking, lebels, placards should be still identifiable if kept immersed in sea water for 3 months.
Large packaging should be marked on two opposing sides and Placards on a CTU (Cargo Transport Unit) shall be placed on four sides.
IBC packaging should be marked on two opposing sides and Placards on a CTU (Cargo Transport Unit) shall be placed on four side.
Radioactive materials shall be marked with the name of consignor or consignee or both if over 50Kgs
A dangerous good transport document includes a paper document as well as provision of the same information by Electronic data processing.
If offered as Electronic means , consignor must be able to present paper documents without delay.
Document must contain the below data in sequence –
Name and address of consignor and consignee of dangerous goods.
Date when it was prepared.
UN number (Always starts with UN)
Proper shipping name
Primary hazard class, division and compatible group
Subsidiary hazard class or division
Total quantity of dangerous good
Stowage means proper placement of DG good to ensure safety of ship, cargo and environmental protection during transport.
The IMDG Code defines “segregation” as the process of separating two or more substances or articles which are considered mutually incompatible wen their packing or stowage together may result in undue hazards in case of leakage, spillage or any other accident. Segregation is obtained by maintaining certain distances between incompatible dangerous goods, by requiring the presence of one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them, or a combination of the previous methods.
To determine the segregation for two classes, you would read a row for one class (across) and for the other class read a column (down). Where they intersect, you will either find the letter “X” or a number. The numbers (1, 2, 3 or 4) will tell the people stowing the goods how far apart they must be separated, as follows:
“1” – “away from” (normally, CTUs at least 3 metres apart)
“2” – “separated from” (normally, CTUs at least 6 metres apart)
“3” – “separated by a complete compartment or hold from”
“4” – “separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from”
It has been observed that the temperature of a dry parcel of air, Which is made to rise, falls at a steady rate of 10°C for every km of ascent i.e., The adiabatic lapse rate of a dry parcel of air, or Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate(DALR) is 10°C per KM.
The temperature of a saturated parcel of air, Which is made to rise, falls at a rate approx 5°C per KM.
Why is SALR less than DALR ?
SALR is less than DALR because, as the saturated air is cooled, its capacity to hold water vapour decreases and the excess moisture condenses into water droplets. This condensation releases latent heat that warms up the parcel of air. That is the reason SALR falls @ 5°C per KM. Where as DALR falls at 10°C per KM.