Chart Symbols – All asked in 2nd mates written.

Question asked in March 2022

FAIRWAY BUOY

UNLIT CARDINAL MARKS

Cardinal Marks unlit

LIGHTED CARDINAL MARKS

ISOLATED DANGER MARK

ISOLATED DANGER MARK SYMBOL

SUBMARINE POWER CABLES

Question asked in FEB 2022

UNDERWATER ROCK OF UNKNOWN DEPTH

Underwater rock of unknown depth

SIMILAR MUST-KNOW SYMBOLS

PILOT POINT

WRECKS

RADIO REPORTING POINTS

RADIO REPORTING POINTS

Radio reporting point symbol 2MFG writtens symbol

Question asked in JAN 2022

SAME QUESTION WAS ASKED AS IN FEB 2022

Question asked in DEC 2021

DEFINE THE FOLLOWING

CHART DATUM

CHART DATUM is the plane of reference for soundings and is stated in the
title of each chart. A chart datum is generally derived from some tidal phase, in which case it is also known as a tidal datum. Common chart datums are the lowest astronomical tide (LAT)

ROUTING CHART

Essential for use in passage planning for ocean voyages, Routeing Charts include routes and distances between major ports, ocean currents, ice limits, load lines and wind roses. They also contain expected meteorological and oceanographic conditions for each month of the year.

ISOGONIC LINE

An imaginary line or a line on a map joining points on the earth’s surface at which the magnetic declination is the same

ODAS BUOY

DRYING HEIGHT

On a nautical chart, the drying height is the vertical distance of the seabed that is exposed by the tide, above the sea water level at the lowest astronomical tide.

Drying heigh

Question asked in AUG, SEPT, OCT & NOV 2021

COMMON QUESTIONS WHOSE ANSWERS ARE WRITTEN ABOVE ARE IGNORED.

SPOIL GROUND

An area within a body of water, esp. in the sea, where dredged material is deposited.

ESTABLISHED DIRECTION OF TRAFFIC FLOW

LIMIT OF SAFETY ZONE AROUND OFFSHORE INSTALLATION

OBSTRUCTION

ISOLATED DANGER MARK

Different types of container lashing and materials

fittings are used for the reliable securing of containers Which can be classified in 2 parts.

  1. Fixed fitting
  2. loose fitting
  • Fixed fittings – Stacking cones, foundations, deck foundations, lashing plates, eyes, pots, d-rings. Fixed fittings are integrated into the hull structure or hatch covers.
  • Loose fittings – Twistlocks, Base locks, spanners, lashing rods, and turnbuckles.

In this article, we will read about the following –

  1. Base locks
  2. Mid locks
  3. Twist locks
  4. Lashing rod
  5. Turn Buckle
  6. Stowage bins and lashing equipment stowage design

1. BASE LOCKS

Base locks, All rights reserved to imunotes.in

It is the foundation of container securing. The bottom-most layer of containers or say the base tier of the container is secured by base locks. Base lock sits in iso socket and once the container is placed on it the handle in front is turned to left side. In the above image the handle is right side which indicates it is in open position. Once the container is loaded we turn the handle to left.

2. MID LOCKS

They are only used in the case of 20 feet containers, Mid locks are not required when loading a 40 feet container. As the name suggests it is in the middle of the hatch cover.
The image below shows the mid lock.

Mid lock on a container vessel .
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Mid lock on a container vessel .
copyright imunotes.in
All you need to know before joining container vessel.
Mid lock on a container vessel .
copyright imunotes.in

3. TWIST LOCKS

Each tier of the container is locked with the other tier of the container with twist locks. If not loaded properly or if the container does not sit properly its because of a twist lock. So while loading the crew keeps a close watch and report if any twist lock problem is noted. The image below shows the use of twist lock.

Twist lock on container vessel
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What are twist locks
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4&5 – LASHING BRIDGE, LASHING ROD & TURN BUCKLE

Crew member on container vessel greasing turnbuckle, imunotes.in
Lashing bridge without any containers, imunotes.in
Lashing bridge when containers are loaded, imunotes.in

Lashing rod design

  • The design of containership securing systems and weight should take into account the practical abilities of the workers to lift, reach, hold, control, and connect the components in all situations anticipated in the cargo securing plan.
  • The maximum length of a lashing rod should be sufficient to reach the bottom corner fitting of a container on top of two high cube containers
  • The head of the lashing rod that is inserted in the corner fitting should be designed with a pivot/hinge or other appropriate devices so that the rod does not come out of the corner fitting accidentally.
  • The rod’s length in conjunction with the length and design of the turnbuckle should be such that the need of extensions is eliminated when lashing high cube (9’6″) containers.
  • Lightweight rods should be provided where special tools are needed to lash high cube containers.

Turnbuckle design

  • Turnbuckle end fittings should be designed to harmonize with the design of lashing rods.
  • Turnbuckles should be designed to minimize the work in operating them.
  • Anchor points for turnbuckles should be positioned to provide safe handling and to prevent the bending of rods.
  • To prevent hand injury during tightening or loosening motions, there should be a minimum distance of 70 mm between turnbuckles.
  • The turnbuckle should incorporate a locking mechanism which will ensure that the lashing does not work loose during the voyage.
  • The weight of turnbuckles should be minimized as low as possible consistent with the necessary mechanical strength.

6. Storage bins and lashing equipment stowage design

Storage bins and lashing equipment stowage design, imunotes.in
  • Bins or stowage places for lashing materials should be provided.
  • All lashing gear should be stowed as close to its intended place of use as possible.
  • The stowage of securing devices should be arranged so they can easily be retrieved from their stowage location.
  • Bins for faulty or damaged gear should also be provided and appropriately marked.
  • Bins should be of sufficient strength.
  • Bins and their carriers should be designed to be lifted off the vessel and restowed.

Types of container based on size, material of construction and usage.

1. DRY STORAGE CONTAINERS

DRY STORAGE CONTAINER, copyrights imunotes.in

The most commonly used shipping containers. Comes in various dimensions standardized by ISO. They are used for shipping dry materials and come in the size of 20ft, 40 ft.

2. REEFER CONTAINERS

Reefer container, copyrights imunotes.in

Reefer containers looks same as the Dry storage container, The only difference is the face of the container which looks like the white container in the above image.

These are temperature-regulated shipping containers that always have a carefully controlled low temperature. They are exclusively used for the shipment of perishable substances like fruits, vegetables, meat etc.

3. TANK CONTAINERS

TANK CONTAINER – TYPES OF CONTAINERS, copyrights imunotes.in
TANK CONTAINER – TYPES OF CONTAINERS, copyrights imunotes.in

Tank containers come in both sizes 20 feet as well as 40 feet, above image is a 20 feet tank container.

Container storage units are used mostly for the transportation of liquid materials, they are used by a huge proportion of the entire shipping industry. They are mostly made of strong steel or other anti-corrosive materials providing them with long life and protection to the materials.

4. GEAR BOX

Gear box of container vessel, copyrights imunotes.in

Gear box contains twist locks of container vessel, once the vessel arrives at port these gearboxes are lowered to the jetty and used by shore team to fit on the loading containers.

They are not a type of container which is used to transport clients good but it is used to carry ships gear.

5. SPECIAL PURPOSE CONTAINERS

SPECIAL PURPOSE CONTAINERS, http://www.armpol.com/

Not the ordinary containers, these are the container units, custom-made for specialized purposes. Mostly, they are used for high-profile services like the shipment of weapons and arson.

6. CAR CARRIERS

Car carriers are container storage units made especially for the shipment of cars over long distances. They come with collapsible sides that help a car fit snugly inside the containers without the risk of being damaged or moving from the spot.

7. FLAT RACK CONTAINER

7. FLAT RACK CONTAINER , copyrights imunotes.in

With collapsible sides, these are like simple storage shipping containers where the sides can be folded so as to make a flat rack for shipping a wide variety of goods. They are also called OOG (Out of Gauge Cargo).

Transporting out of gauge cargo can be a costly affair as it involves additional costs. The out of shape cargo eats into space that could have been used for other cargo.

When an OOG cargo is loaded on the deck or below-deck of a cargo carrier, neither can another container be placed and secured to the twist-locks on the adjacent sides of it nor can containers be placed on top of the OOG cargo, as in flat racks and platform containers.

8. Double doors container

They are a kind of storage unit that is provided with double doors, making a wider room for loading and unloading of materials. Construction materials include steel, iron etc in standardized sizes of 20ft and 40ft.

9. Half-height containers

image credits – https://www.271-containers.com/

Another kind of shipping container includes half height containers. Made mostly of steel, these containers are half the height of full-sized containers. Used especially for good like coal, stones etc which need easy loading and unloading.

10. Tunnel container

image credits – https://www.qubecontainers.co.uk/

Container storage units are provided with doors on both ends of the container, they are extremely helpful in quick loading and unloading of materials.

Action taken in case of GYRO failure

Fallowing are the actions taken in case of gyro failure.

  1. Inform master, Change to 2nd gyro compass if available.
  2. Call Duty AB if not on bridge, Ask him to start hand steering.
  3. Steer vessel with magnetic compass – for that you have to change to hand steering.
  4. Apply the corrections required.
  5. In coastal waters use parallel indexing to keep the vessel on track.
  6. Reporting to authority about gyro failure if required.
  7. Check all the other equipments that have gyro feed like ARPA and ECDIS
  8. Once the gyro is working again you have to calibrate ARPA and ECDIS with the gyro reading.
  9. Reduce the speed if necessary.
  10. Check manuals for troubleshooting.