## Taking over a Anchor Watch

Following are the points for Taking over anchor watch and maintaining an effective anchor watch, This question is asked to 2MFG candidates in Function 1 oral.

1. Go to the bridge 15 min early.
2. Follow the Master’s Standing Orders and sign the night order book – this is the first thing to be done according to a lot of surveyors.
3. Check for the anchor position (How is the cable leading).
4. Stablish the swinging circle and draw it on chart or ECDIS
5. Cheek at sufficiently frequent intervals whether the ship is remaining securely at anchor by taking bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore objects.
6. Keep a Check on your own Ship and other Ships in the Vicinity (Distance between vessels, If the nearby vessel is dragging anchor, Other vessel is putting anchor in or near the swinging circle of own vessel.)
7. Ensure that a proper lookout is maintained.
8. Ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and the other machinery is in accordance with the master’s instructions.
9. Ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound signals are made in accordance with all applicable regulations.

## Swinging circle

The swinging circle might vary with the changes in tidal levels and in the weather. However, it is important to have a fair idea of the radius around which the ship might move about.

The swinging radius of the vessel = Length of vessel + length of cable – Depth of water.

For example

• Length of the ship from bridge to hawse pipe = 125 m
• Length of cable = 6 shackles (6 x 27.5)           = 165 m(+)
• Depth of water                                                 = 15 m(-)
• Swing circle radius of the vessel                      = 275 m

## Action in case of Radar failure

If a ship experiences a single RADAR failure, whether it be X Band or S-Band, the following actions should be taken:

1. Inform master of the RADAR failure.
2. Navigate the vessel safely using the other RADAR (if available).
3. Consider reducing the vessel’s speed if necessary.
4. Troubleshoot the RADAR failure according to the manufacturer’s manual to try to identify the cause.
5. Notify the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), Port Authority, and Company Agent of the RADAR failure.
6. Keep a detailed record of all events related to the RADAR failure.

If the ship experiences a failure of both the X Band and S Band RADAR, the following additional actions should be taken:

1. Inform master of the RADAR failure.
2. Reduce the vessel’s speed (safe speed).
3. Assign extra lookouts to monitor the position of other vessels in the vicinity.
4. Use manual plotting techniques to obtain bearing and range information of target vessels from the Automatic Identification System (AIS).
5. Continuously monitor the proximity of the vessel to any hazards to navigation.
6. Broadcast a SAFETY message in VHF Channel 70 (Alert) and Channel 16.
7. Use parallel indexing (PI) in the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) to pass at a safe distance from all navigational hazards.

Overall, it’s important to remain calm and follow established procedures in the event of a RADAR failure. Crew members should work together to ensure the safety of the ship and crew and take appropriate measures to minimize any potential risks.

## Why do we not prefer moons amplitude

• Due to large parallax
• Change in declination is swift

## Action in case of ECDIS failure

In the event of an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) failure on a merchant ship, it’s crucial to take prompt action to ensure the safety of the ship and crew. Here are some steps that should be taken:

1. Inform Master: Immediately inform MASTER of the ECDIS failure.
2. Switch to backup navigation systems and take other necessary precautions.
3. Switch to paper charts: Use paper charts as a backup to the ECDIS to continue navigation.
4. Do frequent position fixing on the chart.
5. Determine the cause of the failure: Following are the cause
• Power failure
• Sensor input failure
• Hardware failure
• Software failure
6. The vessel should try to repair the defect using spares as available onboard.
7. Notify authorities: Master to inform the technical superintendent about the breakdown of the ECDIS equipment and contact the manufacturer for fault finding & troubleshooting. Inform the flagstate about the breakdown through office.
8. Conduct a risk assessment: Assess whether other systems or equipment have been affected and whether additional precautions are necessary.
9. Vessel can proceed to her next port using the backup system and arrange for necessary repairs at that port.

Remember to remain calm and follow established procedures. Work together as a team to ensure the safety of the ship and crew, and take all necessary measures to minimize potential risks.

## Content of wheel house poster

Wheelhouse poster contains the following information.

1. Ships particular
• Name
• Call sign
• Gross tonnage
• Net tonnage
2. Steering particular
• Type of rudder
• Maximum angle
• Time Hard over to hard over
1. With one power unit
2. With two power unit
• Minimum speed to maintain course
3. Draft at which manoeuvering data were obtained.
4. Propulsion particular as shown below (It will have various engine order and respective RPM)

5. Anchor chain

6. Man overboard rescue maneuver.

7. Thruster effect and Draught increase(With squat effect at various UKC)

8. Turning Circle and stopping characteristics

Have a look at complete wheelhouse poster

## INFORMATION IN SAILING DIRECTIONS

General descriptions of the area, including climate, topography, and important landmarks.

Port descriptions, including information on available facilities, pilotage, and other local conditions.

Recommended routes and procedures for safe navigation in the area, including information on navigational hazards, currents, tides, and traffic separation schemes.

Details on navigational aids, such as buoys, beacons, and lights, including their positions, characteristics, and status.

Information on weather conditions, including typical conditions in the area and how they may impact navigation.

## UPDATING SAILING DIRECTION

The NTMs provide up-to-date information on changes to nautical charts, sailing directions, and other important information such as the status of navigation aids. Mariners should regularly consult the NTMs to ensure that they have the most current information available and update their charts and sailing directions accordingly.

## HOW TO KNOW WHICH SAILING DIRECTION IS TO BE USED?

To determine which Admiralty Sailing Directions (ASD) to refer to for a particular passage, you will need to identify the geographical area in which the passage will take place. ASDs are divided into volumes that cover specific regions of the world’s oceans, coasts, and ports.

The UKHO produces a comprehensive index of all ASD volumes and their corresponding geographical areas, which is available in both print and digital formats. This index provides detailed information on the coverage and scope of each ASD volume, as well as information on how to purchase or obtain the publication.

Another way to identify which Admiralty Sailing Directions (ASD) to refer to for a particular passage is to consult nautical charts for the area. Nautical charts provide a graphic representation of the area’s navigational features, such as depth contours, hazards, and navigational aids, and are an important tool for safe navigation.

Nautical charts typically include information on which ASD volume to refer to for detailed information on the area. This information is usually included in a “sailing directions” or “supplementary information” section of the chart.

## what is difference between segregated ballast and clean ballast

A segregated ballast tank is a tank used for carrying ballast water that is physically separated from the cargo and fuel oil spaces, reducing the risk of oil contamination.

A clean ballast tank, on the other hand, refers to a ballast tank that is free of oil and other contaminants, ensuring that water being discharged from the tank is free of pollutants. The term “clean ballast” is often used in reference to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) regulations, which require ships to maintain clean ballast tanks to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species through ballast water discharge.

In summary, a segregated ballast tank is a physically separated tank for carrying ballast, while a clean ballast tank refers to a ballast tank that is free of oil and other pollutants.

## What is clean ballast?

According to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), “clean ballast” refers to ballast water that has been obtained from a source that is not contaminated with oil or oily mixtures and that is free from any visible residue of such substances.

The purpose of MARPOL regulations regarding clean ballast is to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species and pollutants through ballast water discharge. To ensure compliance, ships are required to exchange ballast water at sea, treat the ballast water, or maintain clean ballast tanks.

In short, clean ballast as per MARPOL refers to ballast water that is free of oil and other pollutants and is used to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species.

## What are the six annexes of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

MARPOL Annex refers to the various annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78). The Convention is comprised of six annexes, each addressing specific sources of marine pollution:

1. Annex I – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
2. Annex II – Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
3. Annex III – Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
4. Annex IV – Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
5. Annex V – Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
6. Annex VI – Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships.

Each annex sets out regulations, standards, and procedures for the prevention of pollution from ships in the relevant area and provides for the implementation of these regulations through the use of survey and certification procedures and port state control.

## Proposed Annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

There have been several proposed annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) over the years, but only the current six annexes have been adopted and entered into force. Some of the proposed annexes that have not been adopted include:

• Annex VII – Prevention of Pollution from Ships using Harmful Anti-fouling Systems
• Annex VIII – Prevention of Pollution from Dumping of Waste and Other Matter
• Annex IX – Prevention of Pollution by Exhaust Gases from Ships
• Annex X – Prevention of Pollution by Ballast Water from Ships
• Annex XI – Prevention of Pollution by Invasive Aquatic Species Transported by Ships.

Some of these proposals have been incorporated into existing annexes or have been addressed by separate international agreements and conventions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) continues to consider proposals for new annexes and to update and amend existing annexes in order to address emerging environmental issues and to improve the effectiveness of the Convention in preventing marine pollution.

## Annex VII – Prevention of Pollution from Ships using Harmful Anti-fouling Systems

Annex VII of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the use of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships. Anti-fouling systems are applied to the hulls of ships to prevent the growth of marine organisms, such as barnacles and seaweed, which can slow the ship and increase fuel consumption. Some anti-fouling paints and coatings, however, contain toxic biocides that can harm the marine environment.

Annex VII sets out measures to regulate the use of harmful anti-fouling systems and to encourage the development and use of environmentally-friendly alternative systems. The annex requires that ships be constructed and maintained with an anti-fouling system that is in compliance with the provisions of the annex and that ships be periodically surveyed to ensure compliance.

The goal of Annex VII is to prevent pollution from ships and to reduce the release of toxic substances into the marine environment, while still allowing ships to maintain their efficiency and performance. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

## Annex VIII – Prevention of Pollution from Dumping of Waste and Other Matter

Annex VIII of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution from the dumping of waste and other matter from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the disposal of waste and other matter from ships, with the goal of preventing pollution of the marine environment.

The provisions of Annex VIII cover the discharge of waste and other matter from ships, including cargo residues, sewage, garbage, and noxious liquid substances. The annex establishes criteria for the discharge of waste and other matter, including discharge distances from the coast, discharge areas, and minimum distances from the nearest land.

Annex VIII also sets out measures to prohibit the dumping of certain types of waste and other matter, including hazardous and noxious substances, and to regulate the dumping of other materials, such as dredged material and fish waste. The annex also requires ships to be equipped with record books to record the disposal of waste and other matter and to have appropriate waste management plans in place.

The goal of Annex VIII is to prevent pollution from the dumping of waste and other matter from ships and to ensure that ships dispose of waste and other matter in an environmentally responsible manner. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

## Annex IX – Prevention of Pollution by Exhaust Gases from Ships

Annex IX of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by exhaust gases from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the emission of air pollutants from ships, with the goal of preventing air pollution and reducing emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere.

The provisions of Annex IX cover the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter from ships. The annex establishes emission control areas (ECAs), which are designated areas where ships must comply with more stringent emission control requirements. ECAs are established to address the high levels of air pollution in certain regions, such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North American coast.

Annex IX also sets out measures to regulate the use of fuel oil and to promote the use of cleaner fuels, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) and low-sulfur fuels. The annex requires ships to be equipped with appropriate emission control systems, such as scrubbers, to reduce the emission of pollutants, and to carry out regular inspections to ensure compliance.

The goal of Annex IX is to prevent air pollution from ships and to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

## Annex X – Prevention of Pollution by Ballast Water from Ships

Annex X of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by ballast water from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the discharge of ballast water from ships, with the goal of preventing the spread of harmful aquatic species and reducing the impact of ballast water discharge on the marine environment.

The provisions of Annex X cover the discharge of ballast water from ships, which can contain harmful aquatic species and other pollutants, including pathogens and chemicals. The annex establishes discharge standards and management procedures for ballast water, including the treatment of ballast water and the exchange of ballast water at sea.

Annex X also sets out measures to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species, including the development of ballast water management plans, the training of crew members, and the maintenance of ballast water treatment systems. The annex requires ships to carry ballast water record books to record the discharge of ballast water and to ensure that ships comply with the regulations.

The goal of Annex X is to prevent pollution from ballast water discharge from ships and to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

## Annex XI – Prevention of Pollution by Invasive Aquatic Species Transported by Ships.

Annex XI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by invasive aquatic species transported by ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the transport of harmful aquatic species in ships’ ballast water and on their hulls, with the goal of preventing the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in new environments.

The provisions of Annex XI cover the transport of harmful aquatic species in ships’ ballast water and on their hulls, which can be a significant source of marine bioinvasion. The annex establishes requirements for ballast water management and hull fouling management, including the treatment of ballast water and the cleaning of hulls.

Annex XI also sets out measures to prevent the introduction and spread of harmful aquatic species, including the development of ballast water management plans, the training of crew members, and the maintenance of ballast water treatment systems and hull cleaning equipment. The annex requires ships to carry ballast water record books and hull fouling records to record the management of these potential sources of marine bioinvasion.

The goal of Annex XI is to prevent pollution from the transport of harmful aquatic species by ships and to prevent the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in new environments. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

## Why is MARPOLcalled 73/78?

Marpol was adopted in 73 and even before the regulations came into force they needed to be updated with TSPP (Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention) conference of 1978 and so came to be known as MARPOL 73/78.

## What is TSPP(Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention)

Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention (TSPP) refers to measures taken to ensure the safe operation of tankers and to prevent pollution from tanker-related activities. This can include measures such as regular inspections and maintenance of tankers, proper training of crew members, the use of spill prevention and response equipment, and compliance with international regulations such as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) and the International Safety Management (ISM) Code. The goal of TSPP is to minimize the risk of accidents and to protect the marine environment from the harmful effects of oil spills and other tanker-related pollution.