How do you change the paper of the Echo sounder?

  • Turn off the echo sounder otherwise it will start giving no paper alarm and that is really annoying.
  • Open the paper cover by pressing the paper cover open button.
  • Set the paper in the correct direction (Earlier days we used to cut the paper to have a triangular tip so that it rolls inside easily but now we don’t need that technique.)
  • Shut the cover after putting the paper roll with its tip inside.
  • While closing push both sides together.

Care and maintenance to keep echo sounder in good working condition.

  • Use a soft cloth (dry) to wipe out the dust you can also use a brush for dusting echo sounder.
  • Do not use solvents like thinner to clean the body.
  • Check frequently and make sure nuts and bolts are tight.
  • Check for loose cable connections and tight that.

Soft copy of cadet record book

To get the soft copy of the cadet record book click on the link below, This link will redirect you to the DG shipping website and you can download the PDF file.

Always keep a soft copy of CRB with you, you might need it anytime onboard.

It is difficult to search for soft copy of cadet record book(CRB), Hope this helped you

Why do we need to exchange ballast water onboard? List the various methods for carrying out a ballast water exchange.

We need to exchange ballast water on board to maintain the ship’s stability and keep the cargo safe. Proper Ballasting and Deballasting can significantly reduce the rolling and pitching of the vessel.

Where can the Exchange of ballast take place?

Ballast water exchange cannot be carried out anywhere at sea. Following are the requirements.

  1. Conduct ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in the water of at least 200 meters in depth.
  2. When a ship cannot meet the above criteria due to reasons such as short voyage duration or enclosed waters, the exchange is to be conducted as far from the nearest land as possible, but at least 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and in a water depth of at least 200 meters.

The ballast water exchange methods are

Sequential method – In this method of ballast water exchange, The tank is emptied completely or to at least 95% and then refilled with replacement ballast water.
Emptying of tanks can be done individually or in pairs.
Flow-through method-
The flow-through method is a process by which replacement ballast water is pumped into a ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water, allowing water to flow through overflow or other arrangements in order to achieve at least 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water. Pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall be considered to meet the standard.
Dilution method-

The dilution method is a process by which replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water with simultaneous discharge from the bottom at the same flow rate and maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the ballast exchange operation.

What is Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) and its content

Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) is a manual that provides guidance about the Stowage and securing of the cargo on board. This manual can be Found mostly in the ship’s office as Chief Officer commonly refers to CSM.


  1. In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea,
    1974 (Solas) chapters VI, VIl and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and
    Securing (CSS Code), cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and
    secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual,
    approved by the Administration.
  2. The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the
    carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.

Following are the contents of (Cargo Securing Manual) CSM –

1. General.

  1. Ships Data
  2. Definitions
  3. General information
  4. Principal sources of danger

2. Securing Devices and Arrangements.

  1. Specification of Fixed Cargo Securing device.
  2. Specification of Portable cargo securing Devices.
  3. Inspection and Maintenance Schemes.

3. Stowage and Securing of cargo.

  1. Handling and Safety instruction.
    1. General principles of cargo securing.
    2. Safe handling of cargo securing devices.
    3. Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units.
    4. Forces acting on typical cargo units.
    5. Calculation of forces in semi and non-standardized lashing arrangement.
      • MSLs for different securing devices
      • Safety factor
      • Simplified method-Rule of thumb.
      • Ship Specific Example based on Alternative Method -using IMO LASCHONTM16.
      • Ship Specific Accelerations from IMO LASCHONTM 19
      • Application of portable securing devices.

4.Supplementary Requirements for general cargo/Container vessel.

  1. Bulk carriers.
    • Extracts from various Timber deck codes.
  2. Container carriers.
    • Handling and safety instructions.
    • Stowage and securing instructions.
      1. Stowage and securing plan.


  1. Log of maintenance of cargo securing equipment.
  2. Manual Procedure for calculation of lashing.
  3. Applicable ANNEXES from the CSS code
  4. LASHCONTM IMO user guide.
  5. Certification of fixed cargo securing devices.
  6. Certification of portable securing devices.


Activity – You are transiting a strait and passing a VTS reporting point. Write down the phrases that you will use to communicate the required information to the VTS. Use the IMO Standard marine communication phrases (SMCP).



The Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) has been compiled: –

  • To assist in the greater safety of navigation and of the conduct of the ship,
  • To standardize the language used in communication for navigation at sea, in port-approaches, in waterways, harbours and onboard vessels with multilingual crews, and – to assist maritime training institutions in meeting the objectives mentioned above.
  • Please note – These phrases are not intended to supplant or contradict the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.


Step 1 – Initiation

When it is necessary to indicate that the SMCP is to be used, the following message may be sent:

  • “Please use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”
  • “I will use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”

Step 2 – Spelling

To give the correct spelling we use phonetics –

phonetics – SMCP

phonetics – SMCP

Step 3 – Message Notation / format / maker

  • (i) Instruction
  • (ii) Advice
  • (iii) Warning
  • (iv) Information
  • (v) Question
  • (vi) Answer
  • (vii) Request
  • (viii) Intention

Step 3B – Distress, urgency, and safety signals

  • MAYDAY to be used to announce a distress message
  • PAN – PAN to be used to announce an urgency message
  • SÈCURITÈ to be used to announce a safety message

Step 4 – Response is started with and then your message

  • Affirmative
  • negative
  • Stand by
  • No information.

Standard organizational phrases

“How do you read (me)?”

  • “I read you …
    • bad/one with signal strength one (i.e. barely perceptible)
    • poor/two with signal strength two (i.e. weak)
    • fair/three with signal strength three (i.e. fairly good)
    • good/four with signal strength four (i.e. good)
    • excellent/five with signal strength five (i.e. very good)
  • When it is advisable to remain on a VHF Channel/frequency say: “Stand by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
  • When it is accepted to remain on the VHF channel/frequency indicated, say: “Standing by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
  • When it is advisable to change to another VHF Channel/frequency, say: “Advise (you) change to VHF Channel … / frequency … .” “Advise(you) try VHF Channel .. / frequency… .”
  • When the changing of a VHF Channel/frequency is accepted, say: “Changing to VHF Channel … / frequency … .”
  • correction / readyness and Repetition
    • Example – “My present speed is 11 knots – mistake.
      • Correction, my present speed is 12, one-two, knots.”