We need to exchange ballast water on board to maintain the ship’s stability and keep the cargo safe. Proper Ballasting and Deballasting can significantly reduce the rolling and pitching of the vessel.
Where can the Exchange of ballast take place?
Ballast water exchange cannot be carried out anywhere at sea. Following are the requirements.
Conduct ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in the water of at least 200 meters in depth.
When a ship cannot meet the above criteria due to reasons such as short voyage duration or enclosed waters, the exchange is to be conducted as far from the nearest land as possible, but at least 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and in a water depth of at least 200 meters.
The ballast water exchange methods are
Sequential method – In this method of ballast water exchange, The tank is emptied completely or to at least 95% and then refilled with replacement ballast water. Emptying of tanks can be done individually or in pairs. Flow-through method- The flow-through method is a process by which replacement ballast water is pumped into a ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water, allowing water to flow through overflow or other arrangements in order to achieve at least 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water. Pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall be considered to meet the standard. Dilution method- The dilution method is a process by which replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water with simultaneous discharge from the bottom at the same flow rate and maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the ballast exchange operation.
Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) is a manual that provides guidance about the Stowage and securing of the cargo on board. This manual can be Found mostly in the ship’s office as Chief Officer commonly refers to CSM.
In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (Solas) chapters VI, VIl and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code), cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration.
The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.
Following are the contents of (Cargo Securing Manual) CSM –
Principal sources of danger
2. Securing Devices and Arrangements.
Specification of Fixed Cargo Securing device.
Specification of Portable cargo securing Devices.
Inspection and Maintenance Schemes.
3. Stowage and Securing of cargo.
Handling and Safety instruction.
General principles of cargo securing.
Safe handling of cargo securing devices.
Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units.
Forces acting on typical cargo units.
Calculation of forces in semi and non-standardized lashing arrangement.
MSLs for different securing devices
Simplified method-Rule of thumb.
Ship Specific Example based on Alternative Method -using IMO LASCHONTM16.
Ship Specific Accelerations from IMO LASCHONTM 19
Application of portable securing devices.
4.Supplementary Requirements for general cargo/Container vessel.
Activity – You are transiting a strait and passing a VTS reporting point. Write down the phrases that you will use to communicate the required information to the VTS. Use the IMO Standard marine communication phrases (SMCP).
SMCP stand for – IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES
Why we need SMCP (IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES)?
The Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) has been compiled: –
To assist in the greater safety of navigation and of the conduct of the ship,
To standardize the language used in communication for navigation at sea, in port-approaches, in waterways, harbours and onboard vessels with multilingual crews, and – to assist maritime training institutions in meeting the objectives mentioned above.
Please note – These phrases are not intended to supplant or contradict the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.
IMO STANDARD MARINE COMMUNICATION PHRASES
Step 1 – Initiation
When it is necessary to indicate that the SMCP is to be used, the following message may be sent:
“Please use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”
“I will use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”
Step 2 – Spelling
To give the correct spelling we use phonetics –
Step 3 – Message Notation / format / maker
Step 3B – Distress, urgency, and safety signals
MAYDAY to be used to announce a distress message
PAN – PAN to be used to announce an urgency message
SÈCURITÈ to be used to announce a safety message
Step 4 – Response is started with and then your message
Standard organizational phrases
“How do you read (me)?”
“I read you …
bad/one with signal strength one (i.e. barely perceptible)
poor/two with signal strength two (i.e. weak)
fair/three with signal strength three (i.e. fairly good)
good/four with signal strength four (i.e. good)
excellent/five with signal strength five (i.e. very good)
When it is advisable to remain on a VHF Channel/frequency say: “Stand by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
When it is accepted to remain on the VHF channel/frequency indicated, say: “Standing by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
When it is advisable to change to another VHF Channel/frequency, say: “Advise (you) change to VHF Channel … / frequency … .” “Advise(you) try VHF Channel .. / frequency… .”
When the changing of a VHF Channel/frequency is accepted, say: “Changing to VHF Channel … / frequency … .”
correction / readyness and Repetition
Example – “My present speed is 11 knots – mistake.
Correction, my present speed is 12, one-two, knots.”