Japan Reporting System (JASREP) is a system whereby ships are encouraged to participate in the reporting system to establish contact, monitor ship’s position and to rescue vessels that are in distress through positive utilization of the system. Position reports and relevant information from ships are processed by the computer and maintained under strict control. The system is to ensure the safety of the vessels in that the Japan Coast Guard contacts the participating vessel if she fails to report in a 24-hr sequence, and in the possible event of an unfortunate distress case, it enables prompt and effective search and rescue operation. The Japan Coast Guard dispatches its assets and if necessary requests the JASREP participating vessel in the vicinity to proceed to the scene for their support.


JASREP service area is latitude 17 degrees and northward and longitude 165 degrees and westward.

Send an e-mail report to: with the subject line which reads: JASREP


SP: Sailing Plan – Sailing Plan is the basic information to estimate a ship’s position, and it should be sent at the time when the ship participates in this system. Reports should therefore be made when the ship departs from a port within the service area or when the ship enters the area.

PR: Position Report – Position Report is the information to verify if the ship’s position input according to the Sailing Plan is correct. The 1st report should therefore be sent at an optional time within 24 hours of departure from a port or entering the service area, and then the reports should be sent subsequently no less frequently than every 24 hours until Final Report.

DR: Deviation Report – Deviation Report is the information to be used for necessary correction of pre-reported Sailing Plan when a ship deviates from the intended course due to a change in the Sailing Plan. Reports should be sent whenever the Ship’s position deviates 25 miles or more from the original track, the port of destination is changed, or other changes occur with a resultant change in Sailing Plan.

FR: Final Report – Final Report is the information to terminate participation in the system. Accordingly, the report should be sent prior to or on arrival at the port, or when a ship departed from the service area of the system


Australian Reporting System (AUSREP) is an integral part of the Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) system in Australia. AUSREP is operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority through the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC Australia). The objective of the AUSREP system is to contribute to the safety of life at sea by – limiting the time between the loss of a ship and the initiation of search and rescue action, in cases where no distress signal is sent out; limiting the search area for a rescue action; and providing up-to-date information on shipping resources available in the area, in the event of a search and rescue incident.

Concept of the AUSREP system: On departure from an Australian port or on entering the AUSREP area from overseas:

The Captains are to send a Sailing Plan (SP) to RCC Australia. A computerized plot will be maintained of the ship’s position; Captains are to make their ships available for polling and notify AMSA by inserting the word ” POLL” in the appropriate section of the SAIL PLAN; or Where Polling is unavailable,

Captains should send a Position Report (PR) each day at a convenient time nominated by the ship 2200 UTC and 0800 UTC. The Maximum time between any two reports is not to exceed 24 hours.

Dates and times contained in AUSREP are to be in Universal Coordinated Time (UTC); If polling is used, the requirements to pass manual position is removed.

Final Report (FR) is to be sent on arrival at the destination or on departure from the AUSREP area. Should a ship at any time be in a position more than two hours steaming from the position that would have been predicted from the last SP or PR, then a Deviation Report must be sent. Failure to send an AUSREP DR, may result in a search being concentrated in the wrong area and the possibility that survivors from a stricken ship may not be found.


Automated Mutual Vessel Rescue System (AMVER) is a ship reporting system for search and rescue. It is a global system that enables the identification of other ships in the area of a ship in distress, which could then be sent to its assistance.

AMVER information is used only for search and rescue and is made available to any rescue coordination center in the world responding to a search and rescue case. The Coast Guard actively seeks to increase participation in this voluntary reporting system. Each year, more vessels participate in the system and more lives are saved. Currently, ships from more than 143 nations participate. AMVER represents “free” safety insurance during a voyage by improving the chances for aid in an emergency. By regular reporting, someone knows where a ship is at all times on its voyage in the vent of an emergency. AMVER can reduce the time lost for vessels responding to calls for assistance by “orchestrating” a rescue response, utilizing ships in the best capability to avoid unnecessary diversions in response to a MAYDAY or SOS call. AMVER, SPONSORED BY THE United States Coast Guard, is a unique, computer-based, and voluntary global ship reporting system used worldwide by search and rescue authorities to arrange for assistance to persons in distress at sea. With AMVER, rescue coordinators can identify participating ships in the area of distress and divert the best-suited ship or ships to respond. AMVER’s mission is to quickly provide search and rescue authorities, on-demand, accurate information on the positions and characteristics of vessels near a reported distress.


a) Sailing Plan (SP)

This report contains the complete routing information and should be sent within a few hours before departure, upon departure, or within a few hours after departure. It must contain enough information to predict the vessel’s actual position within 25 nautical miles at any time during the voyage, assuming the Sailing Plan is followed exactly. Sailing Plans require A, B, E, F, G, I, L, and Z lines. The M, V, X, and Y lines are optional. (The Y line is required for U.S. vessels).

Sailing Plan (Example)



B/240620Z MAR//




I/LOS ANGELES/3343N/11817W/031300Z APR//


L/GC/210/4200N/18000E/280400Z/ L/RL/200/4200N/16000W/300030Z/ L/GC/188/3422N/12047W/030500Z APR//






b) Position Report (PR)

This report should be sent within 24 hours of departing port and a least once every 48 hours thereafter. The destination should be included (at least in the first few reports) in case Amver has not received the Sailing Plan information Position Reports require A, B, C, E, F, and Z lines. The I is strongly recommended. The M, X, and Y lines are optional. (The Y line is required for U>S. vessels).

Position Report (Example)



B/281330Z NOV//


E/090// F/200//

I/LOS ANGELES/ 3343N/11817W/031300Z DEC//




c) Deviation Report (DR)

This report should be sent as soon as any voyage information changes which could affect Amver’s ability to accurately predict the vessel’s position. Changes in coarse or speed due to weather, ice, change in destination, diverting to evacuate a sick or injured crewmember, diverting to assist another vessel, or any other deviation from the original Sailing Plan should be reported

Deviation Reports require A, B, C, E, F, and Z lines. The I and L lines are required if destination or route changes. The I line is always strongly recommended, even when not required. The M, X, and Y lines are optional. (The Y line is required for US. vessels).

Deviation Report (Example)



B/291200Z NOV//




I/LOS ANGELES/3343N/12047W/040100Z DEC//


d)Final Arrival Report (FR)

This report should be sent upon arrival at the port of destination. This report properly terminates the voyage in AMVER’s computer ensures the vessel will not appear on an AMVER SURPIC until its next voyage, and allows the number of days on plot to be correctly updated. Final arrival Reports require A, K, and Z lines. The X and Y lines are optional. (Y line is required for U.S. vessels).

Final arrival Report (Example)



K/LOS ANGELES/3343N/12047W/032200Z//



Other than these repoting one of the most common report is the NOON REPORT

Noon Position Report – is a daily report to the owner and charterer indicating ship’s position at noon whether the vessel is at anchor, at sea or in port including the meteorological conditions of a particular place such as wind force and direction, swell, wave height, vessel average speed for 24 hours, present course and speed, fuel oil and diesel oil consumption and remaining on board (ROB) including ETA at next port of call.

Items need to be recorded in the cargo log book

Entires made in the cargo record book

What are the entries made in the cargo record book?

Loading and Discharging of cargo

  1. Port of loading and discharging.
  2. Cargo to be loaded and Discharged.
  3. Quantity of cargo to be loaded and discharged.
  4. The lineup for intended operations.
  5. Pumps to be used / Loading rate.
  6. Initial loading and discharging rate.
  7. Topping off rate / Stripping Arrangement.
  8. Details of ullaging and sampling, documentation.

Tank Washing

  1. Detail of work – Wash water filling into slop tank.
  2. Initial result for atmosphere check of COT.
  3. Details of line flushing.
  4. Details of Decanting operation.
  5. Details of line pressure test. (If done)
  6. Details of the tank washing procedure.
  7. Details of water wash, Chemical used,

How do you change the paper of the Echo sounder?

  • Turn off the echo sounder otherwise it will start giving no paper alarm and that is really annoying.
  • Open the paper cover by pressing the paper cover open button.
  • Set the paper in the correct direction (Earlier days we used to cut the paper to have a triangular tip so that it rolls inside easily but now we don’t need that technique.)
  • Shut the cover after putting the paper roll with its tip inside.
  • While closing push both sides together.

Care and maintenance to keep echo sounder in good working condition.

  • Use a soft cloth (dry) to wipe out the dust you can also use a brush for dusting echo sounder.
  • Do not use solvents like thinner to clean the body.
  • Check frequently and make sure nuts and bolts are tight.
  • Check for loose cable connections and tight that.

Soft copy of cadet record book

To get the soft copy of the cadet record book click on the link below, This link will redirect you to the DG shipping website and you can download the PDF file.

Always keep a soft copy of CRB with you, you might need it anytime onboard.

It is difficult to search for soft copy of cadet record book(CRB), Hope this helped you

Why do we need to exchange ballast water onboard? List the various methods for carrying out a ballast water exchange.

We need to exchange ballast water on board to maintain the ship’s stability and keep the cargo safe. Proper Ballasting and Deballasting can significantly reduce the rolling and pitching of the vessel.

Where can the Exchange of ballast take place?

Ballast water exchange cannot be carried out anywhere at sea. Following are the requirements.

  1. Conduct ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in the water of at least 200 meters in depth.
  2. When a ship cannot meet the above criteria due to reasons such as short voyage duration or enclosed waters, the exchange is to be conducted as far from the nearest land as possible, but at least 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and in a water depth of at least 200 meters.

The ballast water exchange methods are

Sequential method – In this method of ballast water exchange, The tank is emptied completely or to at least 95% and then refilled with replacement ballast water.
Emptying of tanks can be done individually or in pairs.
Flow-through method-
The flow-through method is a process by which replacement ballast water is pumped into a ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water, allowing water to flow through overflow or other arrangements in order to achieve at least 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water. Pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall be considered to meet the standard.
Dilution method-

The dilution method is a process by which replacement ballast water is filled through the top of the ballast tank intended for the carriage of ballast water with simultaneous discharge from the bottom at the same flow rate and maintaining a constant level in the tank throughout the ballast exchange operation.

What is Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) and its content

Cargo Securing Manual (CSM) is a manual that provides guidance about the Stowage and securing of the cargo on board. This manual can be Found mostly in the ship’s office as Chief Officer commonly refers to CSM.


  1. In accordance with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (Solas) chapters VI, VIl and the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code), cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration.
  2. The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.

Following are the contents of (Cargo Securing Manual) CSM –

1. General.

  1. Ships Data
  2. Definitions
  3. General information
  4. Principal sources of danger

2. Securing Devices and Arrangements.

  1. Specification of Fixed Cargo Securing device.
  2. Specification of Portable cargo securing Devices.
  3. Inspection and Maintenance Schemes.

3. Stowage and Securing of cargo.

  1. Handling and Safety instruction.
  2. General principles of cargo securing.
  3. Safe handling of cargo securing devices.
  4. Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units.
  5. Forces acting on typical cargo units.
  6. Calculation of forces in semi and non-standardized lashing arrangement.
    • MSLs for different securing devices
    • Safety factor
    • Simplified method-Rule of thumb.
    • Ship Specific Example based on Alternative Method -using IMO LASCHONTM16.
    • Ship Specific Accelerations from IMO LASCHONTM 19
    • Application of portable securing devices.

4.Supplementary Requirements for general cargo/Container vessel.

  1. Bulk carriers.
    • Extracts from various Timber deck codes.
  2. Container carriers.
    • Handling and safety instructions.
    • Stowage and securing instructions.
      1. Stowage and securing plan.


  1. Log of maintenance of cargo securing equipment.
  2. Manual Procedure for calculation of lashing.
  3. Applicable ANNEXES from the CSS code
  4. LASHCONTM IMO user guide.
  5. Certification of fixed cargo securing devices.
  6. Certification of portable securing devices.


Activity – You are transiting a strait and passing a VTS reporting point. Write down the phrases that you will use to communicate the required information to the VTS. Use the IMO Standard marine communication phrases (SMCP).



The Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) has been compiled: –

  • To assist in the greater safety of navigation and of the conduct of the ship,
  • To standardize the language used in communication for navigation at sea, in port-approaches, in waterways, harbours and onboard vessels with multilingual crews, and – to assist maritime training institutions in meeting the objectives mentioned above.
  • Please note – These phrases are not intended to supplant or contradict the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.


Step 1 – Initiation

When it is necessary to indicate that the SMCP is to be used, the following message may be sent:

  • “Please use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”
  • “I will use Standard Marine Communication Phrases.”

Step 2 – Spelling

To give the correct spelling we use phonetics –

phonetics – SMCP

phonetics – SMCP

Step 3 – Message Notation / format / maker

  • (i) Instruction
  • (ii) Advice
  • (iii) Warning
  • (iv) Information
  • (v) Question
  • (vi) Answer
  • (vii) Request
  • (viii) Intention

Step 3B – Distress, urgency, and safety signals

  • MAYDAY to be used to announce a distress message
  • PAN – PAN to be used to announce an urgency message
  • SÈCURITÈ to be used to announce a safety message

Step 4 – Response is started with and then your message

  • Affirmative
  • negative
  • Stand by
  • No information.

Standard organizational phrases

“How do you read (me)?”

  • “I read you …
    • bad/one with signal strength one (i.e. barely perceptible)
    • poor/two with signal strength two (i.e. weak)
    • fair/three with signal strength three (i.e. fairly good)
    • good/four with signal strength four (i.e. good)
    • excellent/five with signal strength five (i.e. very good)
  • When it is advisable to remain on a VHF Channel/frequency say: “Stand by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
  • When it is accepted to remain on the VHF channel/frequency indicated, say: “Standing by on VHF Channel … / frequency … ”
  • When it is advisable to change to another VHF Channel/frequency, say: “Advise (you) change to VHF Channel … / frequency … .” “Advise(you) try VHF Channel .. / frequency… .”
  • When the changing of a VHF Channel/frequency is accepted, say: “Changing to VHF Channel … / frequency … .”
  • correction / readyness and Repetition
    • Example – “My present speed is 11 knots – mistake.
      • Correction, my present speed is 12, one-two, knots.”