Different types of container lashing and materials

fittings are used for the reliable securing of containers Which can be classified in 2 parts.

  1. Fixed fitting
  2. loose fitting
  • Fixed fittings – Stacking cones, foundations, deck foundations, lashing plates, eyes, pots, d-rings. Fixed fittings are integrated into the hull structure or hatch covers.
  • Loose fittings – Twistlocks, Base locks, spanners, lashing rods, and turnbuckles.

In this article, we will read about the following –

  1. Base locks
  2. Mid locks
  3. Twist locks
  4. Lashing rod
  5. Turn Buckle
  6. Stowage bins and lashing equipment stowage design


Base locks, All rights reserved to imunotes.in

It is the foundation of container securing. The bottom-most layer of containers or say the base tier of the container is secured by base locks. Base lock sits in iso socket and once the container is placed on it the handle in front is turned to left side. In the above image the handle is right side which indicates it is in open position. Once the container is loaded we turn the handle to left.


They are only used in the case of 20 feet containers, Mid locks are not required when loading a 40 feet container. As the name suggests it is in the middle of the hatch cover.
The image below shows the mid lock.

Mid lock on a container vessel .
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Mid lock on a container vessel .
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All you need to know before joining container vessel.
Mid lock on a container vessel .
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Each tier of the container is locked with the other tier of the container with twist locks. If not loaded properly or if the container does not sit properly its because of a twist lock. So while loading the crew keeps a close watch and report if any twist lock problem is noted. The image below shows the use of twist lock.

Twist lock on container vessel
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What are twist locks
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Crew member on container vessel greasing turnbuckle, imunotes.in
Lashing bridge without any containers, imunotes.in
Lashing bridge when containers are loaded, imunotes.in

Lashing rod design

  • The design of containership securing systems and weight should take into account the practical abilities of the workers to lift, reach, hold, control, and connect the components in all situations anticipated in the cargo securing plan.
  • The maximum length of a lashing rod should be sufficient to reach the bottom corner fitting of a container on top of two high cube containers
  • The head of the lashing rod that is inserted in the corner fitting should be designed with a pivot/hinge or other appropriate devices so that the rod does not come out of the corner fitting accidentally.
  • The rod’s length in conjunction with the length and design of the turnbuckle should be such that the need of extensions is eliminated when lashing high cube (9’6″) containers.
  • Lightweight rods should be provided where special tools are needed to lash high cube containers.

Turnbuckle design

  • Turnbuckle end fittings should be designed to harmonize with the design of lashing rods.
  • Turnbuckles should be designed to minimize the work in operating them.
  • Anchor points for turnbuckles should be positioned to provide safe handling and to prevent the bending of rods.
  • To prevent hand injury during tightening or loosening motions, there should be a minimum distance of 70 mm between turnbuckles.
  • The turnbuckle should incorporate a locking mechanism which will ensure that the lashing does not work loose during the voyage.
  • The weight of turnbuckles should be minimized as low as possible consistent with the necessary mechanical strength.

6. Storage bins and lashing equipment stowage design

Storage bins and lashing equipment stowage design, imunotes.in
  • Bins or stowage places for lashing materials should be provided.
  • All lashing gear should be stowed as close to its intended place of use as possible.
  • The stowage of securing devices should be arranged so they can easily be retrieved from their stowage location.
  • Bins for faulty or damaged gear should also be provided and appropriately marked.
  • Bins should be of sufficient strength.
  • Bins and their carriers should be designed to be lifted off the vessel and restowed.

Types of container based on size, material of construction and usage.


DRY STORAGE CONTAINER, copyrights imunotes.in

The most commonly used shipping containers. Comes in various dimensions standardized by ISO. They are used for shipping dry materials and come in the size of 20ft, 40 ft.


Reefer container, copyrights imunotes.in

Reefer containers looks same as the Dry storage container, The only difference is the face of the container which looks like the white container in the above image.

These are temperature-regulated shipping containers that always have a carefully controlled low temperature. They are exclusively used for the shipment of perishable substances like fruits, vegetables, meat etc.


TANK CONTAINER – TYPES OF CONTAINERS, copyrights imunotes.in
TANK CONTAINER – TYPES OF CONTAINERS, copyrights imunotes.in

Tank containers come in both sizes 20 feet as well as 40 feet, above image is a 20 feet tank container.

Container storage units are used mostly for the transportation of liquid materials, they are used by a huge proportion of the entire shipping industry. They are mostly made of strong steel or other anti-corrosive materials providing them with long life and protection to the materials.


Gear box of container vessel, copyrights imunotes.in

Gear box contains twist locks of container vessel, once the vessel arrives at port these gearboxes are lowered to the jetty and used by shore team to fit on the loading containers.

They are not a type of container which is used to transport clients good but it is used to carry ships gear.


SPECIAL PURPOSE CONTAINERS, http://www.armpol.com/

Not the ordinary containers, these are the container units, custom-made for specialized purposes. Mostly, they are used for high-profile services like the shipment of weapons and arson.


Car carriers are container storage units made especially for the shipment of cars over long distances. They come with collapsible sides that help a car fit snugly inside the containers without the risk of being damaged or moving from the spot.


7. FLAT RACK CONTAINER , copyrights imunotes.in

With collapsible sides, these are like simple storage shipping containers where the sides can be folded so as to make a flat rack for shipping a wide variety of goods. They are also called OOG (Out of Gauge Cargo).

Transporting out of gauge cargo can be a costly affair as it involves additional costs. The out of shape cargo eats into space that could have been used for other cargo.

When an OOG cargo is loaded on the deck or below-deck of a cargo carrier, neither can another container be placed and secured to the twist-locks on the adjacent sides of it nor can containers be placed on top of the OOG cargo, as in flat racks and platform containers.

8. Double doors container

They are a kind of storage unit that is provided with double doors, making a wider room for loading and unloading of materials. Construction materials include steel, iron etc in standardized sizes of 20ft and 40ft.

9. Half-height containers

image credits – https://www.271-containers.com/

Another kind of shipping container includes half height containers. Made mostly of steel, these containers are half the height of full-sized containers. Used especially for good like coal, stones etc which need easy loading and unloading.

10. Tunnel container

image credits – https://www.qubecontainers.co.uk/

Container storage units are provided with doors on both ends of the container, they are extremely helpful in quick loading and unloading of materials.

Action taken in case of GYRO failure

Fallowing are the actions taken in case of gyro failure.

  1. Inform master, Change to 2nd gyro compass if available.
  2. Call Duty AB if not on bridge, Ask him to start hand steering.
  3. Steer vessel with magnetic compass – for that you have to change to hand steering.
  4. Apply the corrections required.
  5. In coastal waters use parallel indexing to keep the vessel on track.
  6. Reporting to authority about gyro failure if required.
  7. Check all the other equipments that have gyro feed like ARPA and ECDIS
  8. Once the gyro is working again you have to calibrate ARPA and ECDIS with the gyro reading.
  9. Reduce the speed if necessary.
  10. Check manuals for troubleshooting.

Explain the Pivot point of vessel and effect of wind on ship handling?


The turning effect of a vessel will take effect about the ship’s pivot point and this position, with the average design vessel, lies at about the ship‟s center of Gravity, which is generally nearly amidships (assuming the vessel is on even keel in calm water conditions). As the ship moves forward under engine power, the pivot point will be caused to move forward with the momentum on the vessel. If the water does not exert resistance on the hull the pivot point would assume a position in the bow region. However, practically the pivot point moves to a position approximately 0.25 of the ships length (L) from the forward position.

Similarly, if the vessel is moved astern, the stern motion would cause the Pivot Point to move aft and adopt a new position approximately 0.25 of the ship‟s length from the right aft position.

The pivot point at anchor :- It should be noted that when the vessel goes to anchor the pivot point moves right forward and effectively holds the bow in one position. Any forces acting on the hull, such as from wind or currents, would cause the vessel to move about the hawse pipe position.
Use of the rudder can, however, be employed when at anchor, to provide a ,sheer’ to the vessel, which could be a useful action to angle the length of the vessel away from localized dangers.

Garbage management plan


  • All ships of 100 gross tonnage and above, every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more and every fixed or floating platform must carry a garbage management plan on board.
  • Which includes written procedures for minimizing, collecting, storing, processing and disposing of garbage, including the use of the equipment on board (regulation 10.2).
  • The garbage management plan must designate the person responsible for the plan and be written in the working language of the crew.
  • Resolution MEPC.220(63) provides the 2012 Guidelines for the development of garbage management plans.

An approved garbage management plan must consist of the following-

  • Ships details.
  • Overview of Annex V of MARPOL.
  • List of Equipments for handling garbage on ship.
  • Placards to be posted for disposal criteria.
  • Possible local recycling arrangements.
  • Written procedures for Collecting Garbage.
  • Garbage segregation description to avoid intermixing of garbage which includes Identification of suitable receptacles for collection & separation.
  • Garbage processing methods available on the ship.
  • Garbage storing methods and garbage station.
  • Garbage disposal methods.
  • Entry to be made in garbage record book.
  • Emergency and accidental discharge criteria.
  • Needs of the reception facilities.
  • Identify the available operating & maintenance procedures of collecting equipment on board.
  • Describe the training or education programs to facilitate the processing of garbage.
  • Identify the location of each collection point.


Regulation 17 of MARPOL Annex II makes similar stipulations that all ships of 150 gross tonnage and above carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk carry an approved shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances.

The latter may be combined with a SOPEP, since most of their contents are the same and one combined plan on board is more practical than two separate ones in case of an emergency. To make it clear that the plan is a combined one, it should be referred to as a Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP).

The purpose of the Plan is to provide guidance to the Master and officers on board the Ship with respect to the steps to be taken when an oil or marine pollution incident has occurred or is likely to occur. The appendices contain communication data of all contacts referenced in the Plan, as well as other reference material.



Oil Record book

All cargo vessels where MARPOL Convention is applicable must have an oil record book in which the officer responsible will record all oil or sludge transfers and discharges within the vessel. This is necessary for authorities to be able to monitor if a vessel’s crew has properly disposed of their oil discharges at sea.


Each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above, ship of 400 gross tons and above other than an oil tanker, and crewed fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations).

An oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above or a non-oil tanker that carries 200 cubic meters or more of oil in bulk, shall also maintain an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/Ballast Operation).


The Oil Record Book Part I shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if appropriate, whenever any of the following machinery space operations takes place in the ship:

1Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks;
2Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks;
3Collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge and other oil residues);
4Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated in machinery spaces; and
5Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil.

In the event of such discharge of oil or oily mixture as is referred to in regulation 4 of this Annex or in the event of accidental or other exceptional discharge of oil not excepted by that regulation, a statement shall be made in the Oil Record Book Part I of the circumstances of, and the reasons for, the discharge.

Each completed operation shall be signed by the officer or officers in charge of the operations concerned and each completed page shall be signed by the master of ship.


The Oil Record Book Part II shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if appropriate, whenever any of the following cargo/ ballast operations take place in the ship:

1Loading of oil cargo;
2Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;
3Unloading of oil cargo;
4Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;
5Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing;
6Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks;
7Discharge of water from slop tanks;
8Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations;
9Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations; and
10Disposal of residues.

Content of Bridge Procedure Guide

Contents of Bridge Procedure Guide

Contents of Bridge Procedure Guide

Bridge Procedure Guide:- The Bridge Procedures Guide (BPG) is an International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) publication that aims to reflect Best Practice aboard Merchant Ships embracing standards and recommendations promoted by the IMO. This includes the concept of ‘continuous improvement’ as described in the ISM Code and the watchkeeping requirements of STCW Chapter VIII.

The international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code.


The International Maritime Dangerous Goods or IMDG Code was adopted in 1965 as per the SOLAS (Safety for Life at Sea) Convention of 1960 under the IMO.

The IMDG code also ensures that the goods transported through seaways are packaged in such a way that they can be safely transported.


  • The seafarer should be able to classify dangerous goods and identify the shipping names of dangerous goods.
  • He/she should know how the particular IMDG cargo should be packed, Marked, lebelled, stowed and segregated.
  • He should understand different types of markings, labels or placards used to address various dangerous goods
  • Must know safe practice to load/unload the cargo unit carrying the IMDG product


The dangerous goods code is a uniform code. This means that the code is applicable to all cargo-carrying ships around the world.


  • Class 1 is for explosives. The same classification has six sub-divisions for materials which pose a high explosive risk, low explosive risk. Example RDX, Ammunition.
  • Class 2 is for gases. compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure.This clause has three sub-categories that talk about gases that are highly inflammable, that are not inflammable and gases that neither inflammable nor toxic
  • Class 3 is for Flammable liquids and has no sub-divisions.
  • Class 4.1 Flammable liquids – Zinc dust, Textile waste, Paints
  • Class 4.2 Substance liable to spontaneous combustion Iron and steel.
  • Class 4.3 Substance which in contact with water emit flammable gases – Sodium, Potassium, Calcium.
  • Class 5 .1 is for substances that have the oxidizing substance example – Sodium peroxide.
  • Class 5.2 Organic peroxides like Peroxyacetic Acid , Decanoyl peroxide.
  • Class 6.1  is for all kinds of substances that are toxic example tear gas.
  • Class 6.2 Infectious substance – Biological substances.
  • Class 7 is specifically for materials that are radioactive – Thorium, Isotopes of cesium.
  • Class 8 is for materials that are corrosive – Sulphuric acid, Caustic soda.
  • Class 9 is Miscellaneous Dangerous substances like fertilizers.




  • Packaging should be constructed and closed so as to prevent loss of contents by vibration or by change in temperature, humidity or pressure under normal transport condition.
  • No residue of dangerous cargo shall stick to the outside of packages, whether new, reused, reconditioned or remanufactured.
  • Part of the packing that is in direct contact with the dangerous good should not get affected. (weakened, react, Penetrate etc)
  • Packaging should be successfully tested for Vibration, Drop test as provided in the code.
  • Cushioning and absorbent material should be inert and suitable to nature of content.
  • Nature and thickness of the packing should be enough to withstand heat generated due to friction while transporting without any problem.
  • Dangerous goods should not be packed together with other substance if they react dangerously .
  • Ullage should be kept sufficient for expansion during transportation.


  • Label shows the class number and dangerous properties of the goods in pictorial symbols as illustrated in the code.
  • They are 100mm by 100mm
  • Placards are 250mm by 250mm, contains the same information but in a bigger size and are fixed to the cargo transport unit.
  • The proper shipping name and UN number should be marked.
  • These marking, lebels & placards shall be readily visible.
  • Marking, lebels, placards should be still identifiable if kept immersed in sea water for 3 months.
  • Large packaging should be marked on two opposing sides and Placards on a CTU (Cargo Transport Unit) shall be placed on four sides.
  • IBC packaging should be marked on two opposing sides and Placards on a CTU (Cargo Transport Unit) shall be placed on four side.
  • Radioactive materials shall be marked with the name of consignor or consignee or both if over 50Kgs


  • A dangerous good transport document includes a paper document as well as provision of the same information by Electronic data processing.
  • If offered as Electronic means , consignor must be able to present paper documents without delay.
  • Document must contain the below data in sequence –
    • Name and address of consignor and consignee of dangerous goods.
    • Date when it was prepared.
    • UN number (Always starts with UN)
    • Proper shipping name
    • Technical name
    • Primary hazard class, division and compatible group
    • Subsidiary hazard class or division
    • Packaging group
    • Total quantity of dangerous good


  • Stowage means proper placement of DG good to ensure safety of ship, cargo and environmental protection during transport.


The IMDG Code defines “segregation” as the process of separating two or more substances or articles which are considered mutually incompatible wen their packing or stowage together may result in undue hazards in case of leakage, spillage or any other accident. Segregation is obtained by maintaining certain distances between incompatible dangerous goods, by requiring the presence of one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them, or a combination of the previous methods.

Segregation of IMDG cargo, Credits – thecompliancecenter.com

To determine the segregation for two classes, you would read a row for one class (across) and for the other class read a column (down). Where they intersect, you will either find the letter “X” or a number. The numbers (1, 2, 3 or 4) will tell the people stowing the goods how far apart they must be separated, as follows:

“1” – “away from” (normally, CTUs at least 3 metres apart)

“2” – “separated from” (normally, CTUs at least 6 metres apart)

“3” – “separated by a complete compartment or hold from”

“4” – “separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from”


MIST – Mist is said to exist when visibility is reduced by water particles that have condensed on the dust, minute salt particles of salt.

When due to mist the visibility reduces below 1 km, it is called FOG. Mist occur when relative humidity is as low as 80%. Radius of water droplet is less than 1 micron.

Fog occurs when relative humidity is 90% or more and the radios of the droplet is between 1 to 10 microns.

What are the types of fog?

Radiation Fog

  • Radiation fog is also known as land fog.
  • It forms over land only.
  • During the night, land gives off its heat very quickly (On clear night it cools more rapidly) .
  • The air in contact with the ground gets cooled and if cooled below its dew point, so large quantity of dew is deposited.
  • Now when light breeze is blowing, turbulence causes the cold from the land surface to be communicated to the air a couple of meters above the ground. So it is called ground fog.
  • If wind is bit stronger, radiation fog may extend upto a height of about 150m.
  • Strong wind causes too much turbulence which leads to formation of cloud – Stratus Type.

Advection Fog

  • It is also called sea fog because it is mostly found over sea. It can however form over land also.
  • It is formed when moist wind blows over a relatively cold surface of sea or land.
  • When most air is cooled below its dew point, the excess water vapour condenses into small droplet of water on the dust or minute particles of salt, resulting in Advection fog.
  • Wind cause advection fog to form and also to spread.
  • However very strong wind can lead to formation of clouds stratus type.
  • Example of advection fog are –
    • Off the east coast of japan where the warm, moist Westerlies, blowing over the warm Kuro Shio, cross over the cold Oyo Shio.
    • On the Grand bank of New Foundland where the warm, moist westerlies, blowing over the warmGulf stream, crosses over the cold Labrador current.


  • Smog is radiation fog mixed with Industrial smoke
  • Smoke + Fog = Smog
  • Example of places – London, Kolkata, Tokyo, Newcastle, Glasgow.

Steam fog or Arctic sea smoke

  • When very cold dry air passes over relatively warm sea surface, The water surface evaporating from sea is quickly condensed into water droplet.
  • It appears as if vertical streaks if smoke are rising from the sea surface. This is called steam fog or Arctic sea smoke.

Hill or Orographic fog

  • When wind comes against a mountain or hill and begins to climb over it, It cools adiabatically.
  • After it reaches dew point, any further cooling causes excess moisture to condense into water droplets forming hill fog or Orographic fog.
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