• Different measures to prevent sealife attaching to ships’ hulls have been
developed throughout maritime history. In the 1960s, organotin compounds such as tributyltin-oxide (TBT) were found to be highly effective.
• This type of anti-fouling works by providing an unstable surface containing a toxic biocide. However, it soon became clear that the use of TBT coatings has negative consequences on the wider marine habitat,
including an adverse impact on numerous non-target organisms which, in turn, has implications for bioaccumulation to the human food chain.
• Moreover, TBT deposited in sediments and dredged material from affected areas — e.g. near ports, dockyards and marinas — became subject to serious concern. Due to such harmful effects, many countries have prohibited or restricted the use of TBT