- Wood, paper pulp and agricultural products may result in rapid and severe oxygen depletion and formation of carbon dioxide.
- The IMSBC code lists the following cargoes as potentially oxygen depleting: coal, direct reduced iron, sponge iron, sulphide concentrates, ammonium nitrate based fertilisers, linted cotton seed. Various gaseous products are formed including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydro carbons.
- Some cargoes like coal and sulphur can cause severe damage due to corrosion.
- Common cargoes like coal, sulphur, cotton, and fishmeal are liable to spontaneous heating. Coal also emits methane which is a flammable gas. When mixed with air it can form an explosive mixture.
- Dust created by certain cargoes may constitute an explosion hazard. Sulphur dust can readily ignite causing an explosion.
- Friction between cotton bales can cause spontaneous combustion and produce heat.
- Ammonium nitrate-based fertilisers support combustion. If heated, contaminated or closely confined, they can explode or decompose to release toxic fumes and gases.
- Metal sulphide concentrates. Some sulphide concentrates are prone to oxidation and may have a tendency to self-heat, leading to oxygen depletion and emission of toxic fumes. Some metal sulphide concentrates may present corrosion problems.