What are the six annexes of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

What are the six annexes of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

MARPOL Annex refers to the various annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78). The Convention is comprised of six annexes, each addressing specific sources of marine pollution:

  1. Annex I – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
  2. Annex II – Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
  3. Annex III – Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
  4. Annex IV – Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
  5. Annex V – Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
  6. Annex VI – Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships.

Each annex sets out regulations, standards, and procedures for the prevention of pollution from ships in the relevant area and provides for the implementation of these regulations through the use of survey and certification procedures and port state control.

Proposed Annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)

There have been several proposed annexes to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) over the years, but only the current six annexes have been adopted and entered into force. Some of the proposed annexes that have not been adopted include:

  • Annex VII – Prevention of Pollution from Ships using Harmful Anti-fouling Systems
  • Annex VIII – Prevention of Pollution from Dumping of Waste and Other Matter
  • Annex IX – Prevention of Pollution by Exhaust Gases from Ships
  • Annex X – Prevention of Pollution by Ballast Water from Ships
  • Annex XI – Prevention of Pollution by Invasive Aquatic Species Transported by Ships.

Some of these proposals have been incorporated into existing annexes or have been addressed by separate international agreements and conventions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) continues to consider proposals for new annexes and to update and amend existing annexes in order to address emerging environmental issues and to improve the effectiveness of the Convention in preventing marine pollution.

Annex VII – Prevention of Pollution from Ships using Harmful Anti-fouling Systems

Annex VII of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the use of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships. Anti-fouling systems are applied to the hulls of ships to prevent the growth of marine organisms, such as barnacles and seaweed, which can slow the ship and increase fuel consumption. Some anti-fouling paints and coatings, however, contain toxic biocides that can harm the marine environment.

Annex VII sets out measures to regulate the use of harmful anti-fouling systems and to encourage the development and use of environmentally-friendly alternative systems. The annex requires that ships be constructed and maintained with an anti-fouling system that is in compliance with the provisions of the annex and that ships be periodically surveyed to ensure compliance.

The goal of Annex VII is to prevent pollution from ships and to reduce the release of toxic substances into the marine environment, while still allowing ships to maintain their efficiency and performance. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

Annex VIII – Prevention of Pollution from Dumping of Waste and Other Matter

Annex VIII of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution from the dumping of waste and other matter from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the disposal of waste and other matter from ships, with the goal of preventing pollution of the marine environment.

The provisions of Annex VIII cover the discharge of waste and other matter from ships, including cargo residues, sewage, garbage, and noxious liquid substances. The annex establishes criteria for the discharge of waste and other matter, including discharge distances from the coast, discharge areas, and minimum distances from the nearest land.

Annex VIII also sets out measures to prohibit the dumping of certain types of waste and other matter, including hazardous and noxious substances, and to regulate the dumping of other materials, such as dredged material and fish waste. The annex also requires ships to be equipped with record books to record the disposal of waste and other matter and to have appropriate waste management plans in place.

The goal of Annex VIII is to prevent pollution from the dumping of waste and other matter from ships and to ensure that ships dispose of waste and other matter in an environmentally responsible manner. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

Annex IX – Prevention of Pollution by Exhaust Gases from Ships

Annex IX of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by exhaust gases from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the emission of air pollutants from ships, with the goal of preventing air pollution and reducing emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere.

The provisions of Annex IX cover the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter from ships. The annex establishes emission control areas (ECAs), which are designated areas where ships must comply with more stringent emission control requirements. ECAs are established to address the high levels of air pollution in certain regions, such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North American coast.

Annex IX also sets out measures to regulate the use of fuel oil and to promote the use of cleaner fuels, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) and low-sulfur fuels. The annex requires ships to be equipped with appropriate emission control systems, such as scrubbers, to reduce the emission of pollutants, and to carry out regular inspections to ensure compliance.

The goal of Annex IX is to prevent air pollution from ships and to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

Annex X – Prevention of Pollution by Ballast Water from Ships

Annex X of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by ballast water from ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the discharge of ballast water from ships, with the goal of preventing the spread of harmful aquatic species and reducing the impact of ballast water discharge on the marine environment.

The provisions of Annex X cover the discharge of ballast water from ships, which can contain harmful aquatic species and other pollutants, including pathogens and chemicals. The annex establishes discharge standards and management procedures for ballast water, including the treatment of ballast water and the exchange of ballast water at sea.

Annex X also sets out measures to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species, including the development of ballast water management plans, the training of crew members, and the maintenance of ballast water treatment systems. The annex requires ships to carry ballast water record books to record the discharge of ballast water and to ensure that ships comply with the regulations.

The goal of Annex X is to prevent pollution from ballast water discharge from ships and to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic species. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.

Annex XI – Prevention of Pollution by Invasive Aquatic Species Transported by Ships.

Annex XI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) is an annex that addresses the prevention of pollution by invasive aquatic species transported by ships. The annex sets out measures to regulate the transport of harmful aquatic species in ships’ ballast water and on their hulls, with the goal of preventing the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in new environments.

The provisions of Annex XI cover the transport of harmful aquatic species in ships’ ballast water and on their hulls, which can be a significant source of marine bioinvasion. The annex establishes requirements for ballast water management and hull fouling management, including the treatment of ballast water and the cleaning of hulls.

Annex XI also sets out measures to prevent the introduction and spread of harmful aquatic species, including the development of ballast water management plans, the training of crew members, and the maintenance of ballast water treatment systems and hull cleaning equipment. The annex requires ships to carry ballast water record books and hull fouling records to record the management of these potential sources of marine bioinvasion.

The goal of Annex XI is to prevent pollution from the transport of harmful aquatic species by ships and to prevent the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in new environments. The annex is part of the comprehensive approach taken by MARPOL to prevent marine pollution and to protect the marine environment.


Why MARPOL is called 73/78 ?

Why is MARPOL called 73/78?

Marpol was adopted in 73 and even before the regulations came into force they needed to be updated with TSPP (Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention) conference of 1978 and so came to be known as MARPOL 73/78.

What is TSPP(Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention)

Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention (TSPP) refers to measures taken to ensure the safe operation of tankers and to prevent pollution from tanker-related activities. This can include measures such as regular inspections and maintenance of tankers, proper training of crew members, the use of spill prevention and response equipment, and compliance with international regulations such as the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) and the International Safety Management (ISM) Code. The goal of TSPP is to minimize the risk of accidents and to protect the marine environment from the harmful effects of oil spills and other tanker-related pollution.

INTERNATIONAL LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCE (LSA) 

Here in this article, we will go through SOLAS requirement for LSA

  • Lifebuoy
  • Lifejacket
  • Immersion Suit
  • TPA
  • Pyrotechnics
  • Liferaft
  • Lifeboats
  • Rescue boat
  • LTA
  • EEBD
  • General Alarms
Lifebuoy imunotes.in

LIFEBUOY

  1. Outer diameter not more than 800mm.
  2. Inner diameter not less than 400mm.
  3. Constructed of inherently buoyant material.
  4. Marked with Ships name and port of registry.
  5. Support 14.5 kg of iron in FW for 24 hours.
  6. Min mass 2.5kg.
  7. Resistant to flame up to 2 sec.
  8. Able to sustain a drop of 30m or the height of stowage, whichever is greater.
  9. Fitted with a grab line 9.5mm in diameter and 4 times the outer dia in length.
  10. Readily available on both sides of the ship
  11. 1 in the vicinity of the stern
  12. At least 1 on each side with a buoyant lifeline with a length not less than twice the distance from the stowage position to waterline in the lightest seagoing cond or 30m, whichever is greater.
  13. At least 50% of lifebuoy to be fitted with self-igniting light.
  14. 2 buoy with light to have smokes and be able to be released from bridge.

LIFEBUOY WITH SELF-IGNITING LIGHTS

  • Cannot be extinguished by water.
  • White color.
  • Burn continuously for at least 2 hours.
  • The intensity of 2 cd
  • 50-70 Flashes per minute
  • Able to withstand the drop test

LIFEBUOY WITH SMOKE SIGNAL

  • Emit smoke of highly visible colour at uniform rate for 15min when floating in calm water.
  • Not ignite, Explode or emit any flame during the smoke period.
  • Continue to emit smoke when fully submerged for at least 10 sec.

ON CARGO VESSEL

Length of vessel in metersMinimum number of lifebuoys
Up to 1008
100 and less than 15010
150 and less than 20012
200 and more14

ON PASSENGER VESSEL

Length of vessel in metersMinimum number of lifebuoys
Up to 608
60 and less than 12012
120 and less than 18018
180 and less than 24024
240 and Above 30

LIFE JACKET

  1. Provided for every person on board.
  2. In addition child life jacket – 10% of the passenger onboard or one for each child, whichever is greater.
  3. Buoyancy not to be reduced by 5% after 24 hours of immersion in FW.
  4. Fitted with a whistle firmly secured by a cord.
  5. A sufficient number to be kept in the manned station like ECR, BRIDGE.
  6. Should not interfere with entry into any survival craft or in sitting.
  7. All lifejackets should be fitted with a light.
  8. 75% of the adult who is completely unfamiliar with it can don within a period of 1 min without guidance or assistance.
  9. After the demonstration, everyone can don within 1 min
  10. Capable to be worn in 1 way only
  11. Allows the wearer to jump at least 4.5m into the water without injury, damage or dislodging the lifejacket.
  12. Sufficient buoyancy and stability in FW to lift the mouth at least 120mm from the water with the body inclined backward by at least 20 deg from the vertical. The time period to bring the body in this position is max 5 sec.
  13. Allows the person to swim and board a boat.
  14. Child lifejacket should be marked with a child symbol.
  15. Child lifejacket should be marked with the height and weight range for which the jacket is designed.

LIFEJACKET LIGHT

  • Luminous intensity min 0.75cd
  • Capable to light for 8 hours
  • white color
  • Manual switch
  • Flash rate 50-70 per min

INFLATABLE LIFEJACKET

  • Min 2 separate compartments for inflation.
  • Inflate automatically upon immersion.
  • Provision to inflate by a single manual motion.

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IMMERSION SUIT

  • 1 for every crew.
  • Constructed with waterproof material.
  • Unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 min along with life jacket etc.
  • Resist burning or melting for 2 sec.
  • It covers the entire body except for the face.
  • Arrangements to minimize or reduce the free air in legs.
  • No ingress of water after a jump of at least 4.5m.
  • Shall permit the wearer to climb up and down a vertical ladder of min 5m.
  • Normal duties for abandonment.
  • Can swim and board a boat.
  • Buoyant immersion suit to be fitted with a lifejacket-type light. (if self buoyant – It must have all features of life jacket.)

Thermal requirement

If the suit does not have insulation, then it should be marked accordingly.

  1. When worn with warm clothing, Body temperature does not fall more than 2 deg on an immersion of 1 hour in calm circulating water of 5 deg.
  2. When warm clothing is not required, the body temp not to fall more than 2 deg on an immersion of 6 hours in calm circulating water of 0 to 2 Deg.

TPA (THERMAL PROTECTIVE AID)

  • Made of waterproof material.
  • Max thermal conductivity of 7800w/m2k.
  • Reduces conductive and evaporative heat loss.
  • Covers the whole body along with the life jacket with exception of the face.
  • Unpacked and donned easily without assistance in a survival craft.
  • Can be removed within 2 min.
  • Can function in  -30°C to +20°C.
  • Every survival craft should have 2 thermal protective aid suits or 10% of its total carrying capacity whichever is greater

PYROTECHNICS

  • 12 Rocket parachute is present on the bridge.
  • 6 Hand Flare, 4 Rocket parachutes, and 2 Smoke signals are present in the lifeboat and liferaft.

ROCKET PARACHUTE

  • Contained in a water-resistant casing.
  • Operational instructions are on casing.
  • Integral means of ignition.
  • When fired vertically, reach an altitude of at least 300m
  • At or near the top of the trajectory, eject a parachute.
  • Bright red light and 30000cd.
  • Burns for a minimum of 40 seconds.
  • The maximum descend rate is 5m/s.

HAND FLARES

  • Contained in a water-resistant casing.
  • Operational instructions are on casing.
  • Integral means of ignition.
  • Bright red color.
  • Min intensity 15,000cd.
  • Burning period of minimum 1 min.
  • Continue to burn after immersion for 10s under 100mm of water.

BOUYANT SMOKE SIGNALS

  • Contained in a water-resistant casing.
  • Operational instructions are on casing.
  • Integral means of ignition.
  • Emit smoke of highly visible color at a uniform rate for 3 min in calm water.
  • Shall not emit any flame.
  • Continue to emit smoke after immersion for 10s under 100mm of water.

Candidate 2

  • Why do you want to join the merchant navy?
  • Tell me about yourself
  • Favorite subject
  • What is TRS
  • What is the cold and warm front?
  • Types of cloud?
  • Rule number 6
  • Rule number 13
  • What to do in case of MOB
  • What is stowage factor
  • Full form of
    • Marpol
    • STCW
    • IMO

TIMBER DECK CARGO

Prior to loading:

  • A pre-stow plan should be made carefully after considering all the available information (w.r.t. to the hold dimensions, cargo gear limitations & cargo dimensions), to allow the maximum utilization of the available space; the better the under-deck stowage, the more cargo can safely be carried on deck.
  • The cargo spaces and related equipment should be examined to check for damages & repairs effected in an appropriate manner.
  • The bilge suction screens should be examined to ensure they are clean, effective and properly maintained to prevent the admission of debris into the bilge piping system.
  • The bilge wells should be free of extraneous material such as wood bark and wood splinters.
  • Side sparring, pipe guards, etc., designed to protect internal hull members should be in place.
  • The Master should ensure that the opening and closing of any high ballast dump valves (TST o’board v/vs) are properly logged. The Master should ensure that the dump valves are properly monitored to preclude (prevent) the accidental readmission of water into these tanks. Leaving these tanks open to the sea, could lead to an apparently inexplicable list, a shift of deck cargo, and potential capsize.

During Loading Operations:

  • Each lift of logs should be hoisted aboard the ship in close proximity to the ship to minimize any potential swinging of the lift.
  • The possibility of damage to the ship and the safety of those who work in the cargo spaces should be considered. The logs should not be swinging when lowered into the space. The hatch coaming should be used, as necessary, to eliminate any swinging of the logs by gently resting the load against the inside of the coaming, or on it, prior to loading.
  • The logs should be stowed compactly, thereby eliminating as many voids as is practicable. The heaviest logs should be loaded first into the cargo spaces.
  • Logs should generally be stowed compactly in a fore and aft direction, any remaining void spaces  should be filled with logs stowed athwartships so as to fill in the void across the breadth of the space as completely as the length of the logs permits.
  • Athwartship voids should be filled tier by tier as loading progresses.
  • Extreme pyramiding of logs should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.
  • If the breadth of the space is greater than the breadth of the hatch opening, pyramiding may be avoided by sliding fore and aft loaded logs into the ends of the port and starboard space.
  • This sliding of logs into the ends of the port and starboard side of the space should commence early in the loading process (after reaching a height of approximately 2 m above the inner bottom) and should continue throughout the loading process.
  • A careful watch by ship’s personnel should be maintained throughout the loading to ensure no structural damage occurs. Any damage which affects the seaworthiness of the ship should be repaired.
  • When the logs are stowed to a height of about 1 m below the forward or aft athwartship hatch coaming, the size of the lift of logs should be reduced to facilitate stowing of the remaining area and logs in the hatch coaming area should be stowed as compactly as possible to maximum capacity.

After Loading:-

The ship should be thoroughly examined to ascertain its structural condition. Bilges should be sounded to verify the ship’s watertight integrity.

During the Voyage:

  • The ship’s heeling angle and rolling period should be checked, in a seaway, on a regular basis. Wedges, wastes, hammers and portable pump, if provided, should be stored in an easily accessible place.
  • The Master or a responsible officer should ensure that it is safe to enter an enclosed space by:
    • Ensuring that the space has been thoroughly ventilated by natural or mechanical means, testing the atmosphere of the space at different levels for oxygen deficiency and harmful vapour where suitable instruments are available.
    • Requiring self-contained breathing apparatus to be worn by all persons entering the space where there is any doubt as to the adequacy of ventilation or testing before entry.

Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS)

FULL FORM OF CSS CODE

CSS stands for Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing.

WHY CSS CAME INTO FORCE

The accelerations acting on the vessel due to its motion in the sea give rise to the majority of securing problems. Hazards arising from these forces should be dealt with by taking measures both to ensure proper stowage and securing of cargoes on board and to reduce the amplitude and frequency of ship motions. Assembly adopted the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code) in November 1991 by resolution A.714(17). The Assembly recommended that Governments implement the Code at the earliest possible opportunity and requested the Maritime Safety Committee to keep it under review and amend it as necessary.

PURPOSE

The purpose of the CSS Code is to provide an international standard to promote the safe stowage and securing of cargoes by:

  • Drawing the attention of shipowners and ship operators to the need to ensure that the ship is suitable for its intended purpose;
  • Providing advice to ensure that the ship is equipped with proper cargo securing means;
  • Providing general advice concerning the proper stowage and securing of cargoes to minimize the risks to the ship and personnel;
  • Providing specific advice on those cargoes which are known to create difficulties and hazards with regard to their stowage and securing;
  • Advising on actions that may be taken in heavy sea conditions
  • Advising on actions that may be taken to remedy the effects of cargo shifting.

In providing such advice, it should be borne in mind that the Master is responsible for the safe conduct of the voyage and the safety of the ship, its crew, and its cargo.

CONTENTS OF CSS CODE

  1. GENERAL
  2. PRINCIPLES OF SAFE STOWAGE AND SECURING OF CARGO
  3. STANDARDIZED STOWAGE AND SECURING SYSTEMS
  4. SEMI-STANDARDIZED STOWAGE AND SECURING
  5. NON-STANDARDIZED STOWAGE AND SECURING
  6. ACTION WHICH MAY BE TAKEN IN HEAVY WEATHER
  7. ACTION MAY BE TAKEN ONCE CARGO HAS SHIFTED

It also contain 13 annex

IBC CODE – International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk.

FULL FORM OF IBC CODE

IBC stands for International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk.

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF IBC CODE

The objective of lBC Code is to provide international standards in ship design, construction and equipment for the safe carriage of dangerous chemicals and noxious liquid substances. It also tells you about cargo transfer, cargo containments, cargo venting arrangements, fire protection & fire prevention and special requirements for certain cargo etc. Implementation of IBC code reduces the risk to ship, crew and environment

WHERE IT COMES FROM

Carriage of Chemical in bulk is covered by SOLAS chapter VII – Carriage of dangerous goods and MARPOL Annex II – Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk. Both conventions require chemical tankers build after 1 July 1986 to comply with IBC Code(International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk)

WHAT IS BCH CODE

Vessel build before 1 July 1986 must comply with BCH Code ( Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk) which is the Predecessor of IBC code.

The Ships constructed after 1986 carrying substances identified in CH 17 of IBC code must follow the requirement for design, Construction, Equipment and Operation of ships.

Ships subjected to code shall be designed to one of the following standards.

TYPE 1 – is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with very severe environmental and safety hazards which require maximum preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo.

  • Can carry Cat X, Y, Z
  • Max quantity to load in a tank is 1250 m3.
  • B/5 from ship-side plating.
  • B/15 from Bottom plating.

TYPE 2 – is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with appreciably severe environmental and safety hazards which require significant preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo.

  • Can carry Cat Y, Z
  • Max quantity to load in a tank is 3000 m3.
  • 760mm from ship-side plating.
  • B/15 from Bottom plating.

TYPE 3 – is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with sufficiently severe environmental and safety hazards which require a moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged condition.

  • No special requirement

Thus, a type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended for the transportation of products considered to present the greatest overall hazard and type 2 and type 3 for products of progressively lesser hazards. Accordingly, a type 1 ship shall survive the most severe standard of damage and its cargo tanks shall be located at the maximum prescribed distance inboard from the shell plating.

CONTENT OF IBC CODE

IBC code contains 21 chapters as given below.

Chapter 1- General
Chapter 2- Ship survival capability and location of cargo tanks
Chapter 3- Ship arrangements
Chapter 4- Cargo containment
Chapter 5- Cargo transfer
Chapter 6- Material of construction, protective lining and coatings
Chapter 7- Cargo temperature control
Chapter 8- Cargo tank venting and gas freeing arrangements
Chapter 9- Environmental control
Chapter 10- Electrical installation
Chapter 11- Fire protection and fire extinguishment
Chapter 12- Mechanical ventilation in cargo area
Chapter 13- Instrumentation
Chapter 14- Personal protection
Chapter 15- Special requirements for certain cargo
Chapter 16- Operational requirements
Chapter 17- Summary of minimum requirements ( list of cargo can carry)
Chapter 18- List of product which the code does not carry
Chapter 19- Index of product carried in bulk
Chapter 20- Transport of liquid chemical wastes
Chapter 21- Criteria for assigning carriage requirements for products subjected to IBC code

CONTENT OF CHAPTER 17 OF IBC CODE

The total number of columns is 15 (From A to O)

  • A – Product name.
  • B – UN No.
  • C – Pollution Category ( X, Y, Z ).
  • D – Spillage and Pollution Hazard.
  • E – Ship Type 1, 2, 3
  • F – Tank Type (Integrated, Integral, Gravity, Pressure)
  • G – Tank venting method (Open / Controlled )
  • H – Tank Environment (Inert/Pad/Vent/Dry/NO)
  • I – Electrical equipment
  • J – Gauging (Open/ Restricted/ Closed)
  • K – Vapour detection – (Flammable / Toxic)
  • L – Fire Protection
  • M – Material of construction
  • N – Emergency Equipment
  • O – Additional Requirement

What are Category X,Y,Z and OS in Noxious liquid substances in bulk under Annex 2 of Marpol.

Noxious Liquid Substance in bulk can be divided into these four categories :

  • Category X: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a major hazard to either marine resources or human health and, therefore, justify the prohibition of the discharge into the marine environment.
  • Category Y: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a hazard to either marine resources or human health or cause harm to amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea and therefore justify a limitation on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment;
  • Category Z: Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a minor hazard to either marine resources or human health and therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment and
  • Other Substances: substances which have been evaluated and found to fall outside Category X, Y or Z because they are considered to present no harm to marine resources, human health, amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea when discharged into the sea from tank cleaning of deballasting operations. The discharge of bilge or ballast water or other residues or mixtures containing these substances are not subject to any requirements of MARPOL Annex II.

What is difference between SOPEP and SMPEP ? Which vessel should carry SOPEP and SMPEP.

You can find more about SOPEP under Annex I, SMPEP on the other hand is under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78. Thus, SOPEP covers the prevention of pollution arising from an oil pollution incident and SMPEP prevents or controls pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances or chemicals.

Do all ships have SOPEP and SMPEP?

Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every ship other than an oil tanker of 400 gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration.”

Every ship of 150 gross tonnage and above certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk shall carry on board a shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances approved by the Administration.”

Now what if vessel is carrying both oil as well as chemical ?

Vessels certified to carry oil and noxious liquid substances can only have an approved Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan (SMPEP) in accordance with regulation 37 of Annex I and regulation 17 of Annex II.

International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPP)

International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (IOPP)

When all the equipment has been surveyed, an IOPP certificate is issued to the ship. The certificate is issued for a period of 5 years and subject to annual endorsements. It is supplemented by a record of construction and equipment for ships which lists all the equipment and arrangement as required depending on the type of ship tanker or other ship.

Form A is other than tankers above 400GRT and Form B is Tankers above 150GRT

What does the certificate signify?

That the ship has been surveyed in accordance with regulation 6 of Annex I of the Convention.

That the survey shows that the structure, equipment, systems, fittings, arrangement and material of the ship and the condition thereof are in all respects satisfactory and that the ship complies with the applicable requirements of Annex I of the Convention.