SOLAS PART I Gives background about the Convention, definitions, certificates, Protocol of 1988. It consists of 14 Chapters and an Appendix showing the format of certificates SOLAS Part 2Contains the Annexes
- Annex 1 – Certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships
- Annex 2 – List of Resolutions adopted by the SOLAS Conferences
SOLAS- Chapter I General provisionsIncludes regulations concerning the survey of the various types of ships and the issuing of documents signifying that the ship meets the requirements of the Convention. The Chapter also includes provisions for the control of ships in ports of other Contracting Governments.
SOLAS- Chapter II-1 Construction – Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations
Includes regulations concerning
- Structure of ships
- Subdivision, watertight and weather tight integrity
- Subdivision load line assignment for passenger ships
- Stability management
- Machinery installations
- Electrical installations
- Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery spaces
- Alternative design and arrangements
- Ships using low – flash point fuels
The subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments must be such that after assumed damage to the ship’s hull the vessel will remain afloat and stable. Requirements for watertight integrity and bilge pumping arrangements for passenger ships are also laid down as well as stability requirements for both passenger and cargo ships.
The degree of subdivision – measured by the maximum permissible distance between two adjacent bulkheads – varies with ship’s length and the service in which it is engaged. The highest degree of subdivision applies to passenger ships.
Requirements covering machinery and electrical installations are designed to ensure that services which are essential for the safety of the ship, passengers and crew are maintained under various emergency conditions.
“Goal-based standards” for oil tankers and bulk carriers were adopted in 2010, requiring new ships to be designed and constructed for a specified design life and to be safe and environmentally friendly, in intact and specified damage conditions, throughout their life. Under the regulation, ships should have adequate strength, integrity and stability to minimize the risk of loss of the ship or pollution to the marine environment due to structural failure, including collapse, resulting in flooding or loss of watertight integrity.
IGF Code – International code of safety for ships using gases or other low-flash point fuels was adopted in order to provide an International standard for the safety of ships using low-flash point fuel, other than ships covered by the IGC code.
IS Code – International code on Intact Stability is to provide mandatory requirements and recommended provisions relating to Intact Stability, based primarily on existing IMO Instruments.
Code on Noise levels on board ships is to provide measures for the protection against noise in machinery spaces of ships.
SOLAS- Chapter II-2 Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinctionIncludes detailed fire safety provisions for all ships and specific measures for passenger ships, cargo ships and tankers.
They include the following principles:
- Division of the ship into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries
- Separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries
- Restricted use of combustible materials
- Detection of any fire in the zone of origin
- Containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin
- Protection of the means of escape or of access for firefighting purposes
- Ready availability of fire extinguishing appliances
- Minimizing the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor.
FSS Code – International Code for Fire Safety Systems provides international standards of specific engineering specifications for fire safety systems required under this chapter.
FTP Code – International code for application of Fire Test Procedures is for use by the Administration and the competent authority of the flag state when approving products for installation in ships flying the flag of the flag state in accordance with the fire safety requirements.
SOLAS- Chapter III Life-saving appliances and arrangementsIncludes requirements for life-saving appliances and arrangements, including requirements for life boats, rescue boats and life jackets according to type of ship.
The Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code provides international requirements for the Life-saving appliances required by this chapter.
SOLAS- Chapter IV Radio communicationsThe Chapter incorporates the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)All passenger ships and all cargo ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards on international voyages are required to carry equipment designed to improve the chances of rescue following an accident, including satellite emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs) and search and rescue radar transponders (SARTs) for the location of the ship or survival craft.
Regulations in Chapter IV cover undertakings by contracting governments to provide radio communication services as well as ship requirements for carriage of radio communications equipment.
The Chapter is closely linked to the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union.
SOLAS- Chapter V Safety of navigationChapter V identifies certain navigation safety services which should be provided by Contracting Governments and sets forth provisions of an operational nature applicable in general to all ships on all voyages.
This is in contrast to the Convention as a whole, which only applies to certain classes of ship engaged on international voyages.
The subjects covered include the maintenance of meteorological services for ships; the ice patrol service; routing of ships; and the maintenance of search and rescue services.
This Chapter also includes a general obligation for masters to proceed to the assistance of those in distress (Good Samaritan Law-Law of the Sea) and for Contracting Governments to ensure that all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned from a safety point of view.
The chapter makes mandatory the carriage of voyage data recorders (VDRs) and automatic identification system (AIS) for certain ships.
SOLAS- Chapter VI Carriage of CargoesThis Chapter applies to the carriage of all types of cargo (except liquids in bulk and gases in bulk) which, owing to their particular hazards to ships or persons on board, may require special precautions.
The IMSBC Code – International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code is to facilitate the safe stowage and shipment of solid bulk cargoes.
The CSS Code – Code of Safe practice for cargo stowage and securing applies to cargoes carried on board ships, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes and timber stowed on deck.
The International Grain Code – International code for the safe carriage of grain in bulk, applies to engaged in the carriage of grain in bulk.
The BLU Code – Code of practice for the safe loading and unloading of bulk carriers has been developed by IMO to minimize losses of bulk carriers.
The TDC Code – Code of safe practice for ships carrying Timber Deck Cargo is to define structural requirements to ensure safety in the handling, stacking and transporting of containers.
SOLAS- Chapter VII Carriage of dangerous goodsPart A – Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form – includes provisions for the classification, packing, marking, labeling and placarding, documentation and stowage of dangerous goods.
Contracting Governments are required to issue instructions at the national level and the Chapter makes mandatory the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, developed by IMO, which is constantly updated to accommodate new dangerous goods and to supplement or revise existing provisions.
The IMDG Code was first adopted by IMO in 1965 and has been kept up to date by regular amendments, including those needed to keep it in line with United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods which sets the basic requirements for all the transport modes.
Part A-1 – Carriage of dangerous goods in solid form in bulk – covers the documentation, stowage and segregation requirements for these goods and requires reporting of incidents involving such goods
Part B covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk and requires chemical tankers built after 1 July 1986 to comply with the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code)
Part C covers Construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk and gas carriers constructed after 1 July 1986 to comply with the requirements of the International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code)
Part D includes special requirements for the carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes on board ships and requires ships carrying such products to comply with the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive waste on Board Ships (INF Code)
The chapter requires carriage of dangerous goods to be in compliance with the relevant provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code)
SOLAS- Chapter VIII – Nuclear shipsGives basic requirements for nuclear-powered ships and is particularly concerned with radiation hazards
It refers to detailed and comprehensive Code of Safety for Nuclear Merchant Ships which was adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1981
SOLAS- Chapter IX – Management for the Safe Operation of ShipsThe Chapter makes mandatory the International Safety Management (ISM) Code, which requires a safety management system to be established by the shipowner or any person who has assumed responsibility for the ship (the “Company”)
SOLAS-Chapter X – Safety measures for high-speed craftThe Chapter makes mandatory the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code)
SOLAS-Chapter XI-1 – Special measures to enhance maritime safetyThe Chapter clarifies requirements relating to authorization of recognized organisations (responsible for carrying out surveys and inspections) in accordance with RO Code – Code for recognized organisation.
Bulk carriers and oil tankers as defined in other chapters shall be subject to an enhanced program of inspections in accordance with the ESP Code – International Code on the enhanced program of inspections during surveys of bulk carriers and oil tankers.
Casualty investigation code – Code of the international standards and recommended practices for a safety investigation into a marine casualty or marine incident is to provide a common approach for States to adopt in the conduct of marine safety investigations into marine casualties and marine incidents.
SOLAS-Chapter XI-2 – Special measures to enhance maritime securityThe Chapter was adopted in December 2002 and entered into force on 1 July 2004.
ISPS Code – The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code is to establish an international framework to detect/assess security threats and take preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities.
Regulation XI-2/2 of the chapter enshrines the International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code). Part A of the Code is mandatory and part B contains guidance as to how best to comply with the mandatory requirements.
Regulation XI-2/8 confirms the role of the Master in exercising his professional judgment over decisions necessary to maintain the security of the ship. It says he shall not be constrained by the Company, the charterer or any other person in this respect.
Regulation XI-2/6 requires all ships to be provided with a ship security alert system.
Regulation XI-2/10 covers requirements for port facilities, providing among other things for Contracting Governments to ensure that port facility security assessments are carried out and that port facility security plans are developed, implemented and reviewed in accordance with the ISPS Code. Other regulations in this chapter cover the provision of information to IMO, the control of ships in port, (including measures such as the delay, detention, restriction of operations including movement within the port, or expulsion of a ship from port), and the specific responsibility of Companies.
SOLAS-Chapter XII – Additional safety measures for bulk carriersThe Chapter includes structural requirements for bulk carriers over 150 meters in length.
SOLAS-Chapter XIII – Verification of ComplianceUnder III code – IMO Instruments Implementation Code – contracting governments shall use the provisions of this code for implementation in the execution of their obligations and responsibilities in SOLAS Convention.
This was made mandatory from 1 January 2016 the IMO Member State Audit Scheme.
SOLAS-Chapter XIV – Safety Measures for Ships Operating in Polar WatersThe Polar Code – International code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters has been developed to increase the safety of ships operation and mitigate the impact on the people and environment in the remote, vulnerable and potentially harsh Polar Waters.
The chapter was made mandatory, from 1 January 2017, the Introduction and part I-A of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (the Polar Code).